TABLE 4-1 Panel Studies Reviewed

Study Legal Status Intensity of Use Use of an Instrument Results: Signa and Significanceb of Point Estimates
Berk (2005) N Y N All possible results
Cohen-Cole et al. (2009) Y Y Y All possible results
Donohue and Wolfers (2005, 2009) Y Y Y All possible results
Dezhbakhsh and Shepherd (2006) Y Y N –**
Dezhbakhsh, Rubin, and Shepherd (2003)c Y Y Y –**; and –NS
Katz, Levitt, and Shustorovich (2003) N Y N –**; –NS; and +NS
Kovandzic, Vieraitis, and Boots (2009) Y Y N NS; +NS
Mocan and Gittings (2003) Y Y N –**; and –NS
Mocan and Gittings (2010) N Y N –**; and –NS
Zimmerman (2004) N Y Y –*; and –NS

aSign of the estimated coefficients: –, the estimated effect of capital sanctions on homicide is negative, indicating a deterrent effect; +, the estimated effect of capital sanctions on homicide is positive, indicating a brutalization effect.

bStatistical significance levels: NS, no statistical significance at p = 0.05; *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01.

cDezhbakhsh, Rubin, and Shepherd (2003) estimate 55 different panel data regression models. In 49 of the models, the estimated effect of capital sanctions on homicide is negative and statistically significant; in 4, the estimates are negative and insignificant; and in 2, the estimates are positive and insignificant.



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