ty assurance. It also may create a pathway for people to gain expertise, become coaches, and expand the program. “The idea is to spread that expertise efficiently throughout the service system and then support it with the seed team. This is ongoing now, and we will be following these teams for the next 4 years to see if they maintain fidelity and if we get successive reductions in child maltreatment reports and recidivism,” said Aarons.

Future Opportunities to Enhance Dissemination
and Implementation

Both the outer system and the inner organizational context need to be improved to enhance receptivity to evidence-based practice, said Aarons. In particular, understanding of evidence-based practices can be increased in both the outer and inner contexts.

Stakeholder collaboration and partnerships also need to be maximized to support the implementation of evidence-based practice, as does leadership coordinated across the outer and inner contexts.

Methodological innovation in research design and in the methods and measures of implementation is needed. Examples include roll-out designs, system dynamics, network analyses, decision science, and developmental measures of implementation climate. Technological innovations also can serve as implementation methods.

Finally, models of sustainment need to be developed and tested. “Once we have the practice in [i.e., implemented], what do we need to know to effectively sustain evidence-based practice in the outer and inner contexts of child welfare?” Aarons asked.

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