The next speaker, Mike Reed, joined Magna E-Car Systems in 2009 as general manager of the battery divisions, Mr. Greenberger noted. He started up Magna’s North American lithium-ion battery cell and pack manufacturing facility. Mr. Reed has more than 40 years of experience in the battery industry, he explained, with various technical and managerial roles at battery companies. He holds a degree in chemical engineering from Purdue and an MBA from Indiana University “and, I’m sure, some honorary degree from some Michigan university,” Mr. Greenberger said.

Building a supply chain for an advanced battery industry isn’t only about finished goods, Mr. Greenberger said. “You also are talking about the bottom end of that supply chain, the raw materials,” he said.

The next speaker, Linda Gaines of Argonne National Laboratory, addresses the raw materials. Dr. Gaines is a systems analyst at Argonne for transportation research, Mr. Greenberger explained. She holds a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and physics from Harvard and a Ph. D. from Columbia University. She began her 30 years of experience at Argonne by writing a series of handbooks on energy and material flows, petroleum refining, organic chemicals, and copper industries that provided background for studies of recycling packaging for discarded tires and other energy-intensive materials, he noted. Dr. Gaines’ most recent work has been on reducing petroleum use and other impacts in transportation by recycling batteries and reducing idling.

BATTERY MANUFACTURER PERSPECTIVE

Tom Watson Johnson Controls

Mr. Watson began by noting that he spent one year in Wisconsin, but 25 years in Ann Arbor. “So I still consider myself a Michigander,” he said.

Johnson Controls is involved “in every aspect of energy efficiency,” Mr. Watson explained, including devices for homes, workplaces, and autos. It also is committed to corporate sustainability, he added. “This is more than just the economic part of the corporate equation,” he said.

Although it must produce revenue and profits, Johnson Controls is committed to social responsibility, “which helps bring jobs to our local areas around the globe as well as support and build the industry.” The other part of the company’s sustainability model is environmental stewardship, Mr. Watson said. “That is where it touches on all three pieces of our company business,” he said. “We deliver greater fuel efficiency and lower emissions in our vehicles and reduce energy consumption in our buildings.” Johnson Controls uses a “triple bottom line” model, he said, “as opposed to the single bottom line.”

Johnson Controls-Saft, the company’s lithium-ion battery joint venture, was first to the market with a lithium-ion application for a mild hybrid vehicle, Mr.



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