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Index A Ability tests/testing accuracy in predicting job performance, 18 biases against minorities, 5-6, 259 cognitive, 18, 19, 44 comparability issue, 222, 232 constitutionality of, 39, 44 for employment screening, rationale, 9, 17, 18 fairness perspectives, 19, 135, 149, 199, 253-261, 277-278 generalization of validity, 19; see also Validity generalization; VG-GATB Referral System of handicapped people, 22~221, 232 item selection strategy, 268-270 modification for handicapped people, 22~221, 232 predictive power of, 19 racially disproportional results as discriminatory, 44 research by Employment Service on, 65 value of, 216 see also Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery; General Aptitude Test Battery; Intelligence testing 335 Affirmative action programs arguments against, 34 arguments for, 35 components of, 46 court-ordered remedies, 45~6 enforcement authority for, 46 by federal contractors, 46 in federal departments and agencies, 42, 46 and general consensus on equality, 30 legality of, 46~7, 49-50, 58 preferential treatment in, 37-38, 45-48 pressure on employers to adopt, 45 purpose of, 58 quota systems, 47-48 reverse discrimination in, 47 score adjustments in ability tests, 21, 51, 213 voluntary private-sector, 46-47, 49 see also Preferential treatment by race, ethnicity, or gender American College Testing Program, 114 American Legion, 225, 226, 229-230 Armed Forces Qualification Test combat composite, 92 test parts, 92, 95 training aptitude, 94-95, 98 uses, 92 validities, 94-96, 98, 146

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336 INDEX Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) coaching for, 110 compared to GATB, 4, 91-96 new forms production, 4, 91-92, 115 predictive validity, 4, 93-96 normative data, 4, 93 reliabilities, 4, 93 speededness, 92, 95 subtests, 92-96, 146 temporal stability of validities, 163 test security, 4, 91-92, 98, 114 uses, 91 see also Armed Forces Qualification Test Army Alpha, 23, 2~25 Army General Classification Test, 91 Australian Army General Classification Test, 89, 305 B Bias in GATB administration practices, 99, 100 against minorities, 5-6, 259 in supervisor ratings, 6, 185-187, 188 systematic, 107 in test speededness, 104-106, 115 see also Errors; Item-bias analyses Billet intelligence scale, 23, 24 Blacks adjustment of GATB scores for, 9, 11, 20-21 bias in supervisor ratings of, 6, 185-187, 188 correlations between test score and supervisor ratings for, 6, 17~177 distributions of standardized differences in predicted scores, 183-184 GATB validities for, 6, 157, 162, 17~177, 188 normative data for, 85 overprediction of performance, 6, 186, 188 performance as a group, 42 performance bias against, 259 prediction equation for performance, 6; see also Differential prediction analysis standard error of prediction for, 179 test score differences of, 20, 27, 187, 253 Brigham, Carl, 24, 25-26 Brown v. Board, 37, 39, 45 C Civil Rights Act of 1964 ambiguities in, 3~43 class action suits under, 34; see also specific cases and investigations of GATB fairness, 134 1972 amendments to, 42~3, 46 preferential treatment under, 3~39, 46 purpose and effectiveness of, 40 resistance to, 40 see also Title VII of the Civil Rights Act Civil rights policies and equal protection clause of Constitution, 44 equity and, 39~43 and general consensus on fairness and justice, 29-30 sources of debate over, 3~33 Civil service, 32, 38, 225, 226, 229 Clerical perception (Q) in cognitive composite, 142 convergent validity coefficients for, 89-90, 97, 306-309 defined, 74 practice effects on, 111-112 subtest for, 75, 90, 91, 100, 309 speededness, 74, 100 see also Perceptual composite Coaching and chance scores for power tests, 101 effects on GATB scores, 113-114 random answers, 4, 100-101, 109 for Scholastic Aptitude Test, 110 speededness and, 11, 73 study with mentally retarded adults, 113-114 vulnerability of GATB to, 101, 109~110, 115 see also Practice effects Cognitive composite alternate-form reliabilities for, 93, 96 correlations with perceptual and psychomotor composites, 137-138, 145, 168 convergent validity coefficients for, 89-90, 97, 309

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INDEX 337 defined, 142 effect sizes with same-form retesting, 325 effect sizes with alternate-form retesting, 326 equivalent forms reliabilities, 317 estimated effect size of practice on scores, 11~113 Hunter-Schmidt composite, 22-23, 13~138 measures of, 5, 142 score conversion for, 83 stability coefficients by age and test-retest interval, 87, 312-315 weighting of, 136, 138, 144, 146, 168 scores for handicapped people, 223 Cognitive composite validities across job families, 15~155, 15~159, 161, 164-165, 168, 169, 17~171 age of job seeker correlated with, 156, 218 for clerical work, 244 education correlated with, 157 by experience of job seeker, 15~157 for job performance, 22-23, 136-138, 141-142, 147, 155, 161, 164 165, 168, 169, 169, 17~171 restriction of range in, 145, 167, 168 for skilled trades, 244 sampling error corrections in, 164 by sex, 158 by study type, 155 and training success, 155, 161, 164, 168, 169 by year of study, 159 Combined Rules Referral Plan computation of score adjustment factor, 273-274 norm groups for within-group scoring, 273-274 operationalization of, 271-273 recommended use of, 12, 271 Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment antisubjugation principle, 36 equal protection clause, intent of, 34, 3~37, 43 44 violation of, 37; see also specific cases Construct validity answer sheet design and, 99, 102, 106, 115 artificial factors affecting, 19 ASVAB, 91-96 for cognitive aptitudes, 89 evidence supporting, 303-304 for GATB subtests, 8~91, 98, 304 310; see also Convergent validity coefficients and item selection strategy, 269-270 of modified tests for handicapped people, 220 for perceptual aptitudes, 89 psychometric theory of, 17-19 for psychomotor aptitudes, 89 and school grades, 9~95 sources of evidence, 88 89 speededness and, 95, 102-106, 115, 308 Convergent validity coefficients clerical perception, 89~90, 97, 30~309 cognitive aptitude, 89-90, 97, 305-307, 309 finger dexterity, 89, 30~307, 309 form perception, 89-90, 30~309 intelligence, 89-90 military training, 93-96 manual dexterity, 89, 30~307, 309 motor coordination, 89, 306-307, 309 numerical aptitude, 89, 306, 307-308, 3099 perceptual aptitude, 89-90, 97 psychomotor aptitude, 89, 97 spatial aptitude, 89-90, 97, 306-309 verbal aptitude, 89, 306, 307, 309 Correlation coefficients (r) for age of job seekers and composite validity, 156 diagrams of linear relationships, 151 education and composite validity, 157 experience and age of job seeker, 156 experience and composite validity, 15~157 of GATB-based predictors with supervisor ratings, 5, 6, 150, 151 interpretation of, 15~151 by job family, 164 minority group differences in, 17~178 sampling error corrections in, 164 of spatial and perceptual abilities, 244 of test score and job performance, 126, 15(~151 of test score and productivity, 237, 244 weighting for sample size, 175 year of study and composite validity, 159 see also Predictive validities Counseling, see Vocational counseling

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338 INDEX Criterion measures, see Job performance; Training success; Supervisor ratings of job incumbents Criterion unreliability correction computation, 165-166 effect of, 129, 169-170 empirical support for, 170 in Hunter-Schmidt analyses, 5, 129, 133, 141, 165-168 inappropriate, 140, 141 for supervisor ratings, 145, 165-166, 168, 170 for training success, 168 D DeFunis v. Odegoard, 35 Department of Defense Directorate for Accession Policy, 114 Student Testing Program, 91 see also Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Department of Justice challenges to within-group scoring, 21-22, 200 enforcement powers under Title VII. 39, 40 policy on use of race-conscious employment practices, 29 Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) data-people-things scale, 136, 143-144, 145-146, 147 jobs included in GATE validity studies, 130, 133, 135, 143 maintenance of, 61, 65 number of jobs in, 135 purpose of, 60, 63, 64, 66, 68, 196, 198 Differential Aptitude Test Battery (DAT), 89, 91, 305 Differential prediction analysis application, 178 defined, 6, 178 distributions of standardized differences in predicted scores, 183-184 equations for, 173 group membership variable, 179, 254 intercepts, 181-182, 264 265 of referral rules, 264-266 sampling variability and, 181, 184, 263 and selection bias, 178 slopes of regression of criterion scores, 18~181, 182, 184-185 standard errors of prediction, 179 and test bias, 255 total-group regression equations, 182-185, 188, 253 t-ratios, 180 Differential validity forms of studies, 172 across job families, 174-178 by race, 157, 172, 174-178, 188, 253 and sampling error, 176 and setting, 172 by sex, 157-158, 172, 173, 177-178 uses of studies, 172 Discrimination conceptualization by Supreme Court, 41 constitutional justification for structural remedies, 38, 44 constitutional safeguards against, 43~4 EEOC interpretation of, 41 exclusionary, 37 inclusionary, 37, 42 against individuals versus groups, 36-37 "perpetrator perspective" of, 44 pervasiveness of, 36 reverse, 3, 34, 35, 47, 200, 252 showing necessary in constitutional cases, 44 social sanction of, 38 Title VII definition, 38, 40, 41 underrepresentation of minorities as, 42 use of race-conscious mechanisms to overcome, 3, 21, 5~51; see also Score adjustments within-group scoring mechanisms as, 2~22 Disabled American Veterans, 225, 226 Disabled Veterans' Outreach Program, 228 E Economic claims for VG-GATB system aggregate economic gains, 241-245, 248 committee estimate of, 241 critique of, ~9, 199, 235-248

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INDEX 339 dollar amounts, 1~20, 237, 238, 240, 247 gains for individual firms, 235-241, 248 Hunter-Schmidt job matching model, 242-245 promotion of, 13, 235 time-to-standard measure of, 205-206 utility analysis, 235-241, 242 Economic liberalism, 31-32 Education composite validities correlated with, 157 equal opportunity programs, 33 preferential admission policies at universities, 35 Educational Testing Service, 221, 232, 268 Emergency Veterans' Job Training Act of 1983, 228 Employee Aptitude Survey, 91 Employee selection economic effects of, 13 employer criteria for, 212 fairness in, 255-257 race-conscious mechanisms in, 3, 12, 21, 49-51; see also Affirmative action programs top-down strategy and work-force efficiency, 21, 198, 211 see also Referral rules; Selection error Employers benefits from VG-GATB system, 9, 203, 21~211, 212-213, 231, 247 candidates selected per job opening, 212 listing of job openings with Employment Service, 66 payroll taxes, 56 recruiting sources and methods, 52-54 responsibility for work-force composition, 13 role in evaluating VG-GATB system, 13, 130, 208 selection criteria of, 212 subject to Title VII, 213 uses of VG-GATB system, 212 vulnerability on preferential treatment issue, 39, 47, 200 Employers' National Job Service Committee (ENJSC), 57, 199, 208, 211 Employment and Training Administration, 60, 61 Employment security system ENJSC role with, 57 legislation affecting, 58 Employment Service, see Job Service; Public Employment Service; U.S. Employment Service Enhanced National Data System (ENDS), 198 Equal employment opportunity basis for federal policies, 19, 38-43 through race-conscious employment practices, 29 reduction of legal vulnerability to suits under, 27 USES promotion of, with score adjustments, 21 see also Affirmative action programs; Civil Rights Act of 1964 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) compliance reviews, 45 interpretation of Title VII discrimination, 41 policy on employee selection procedures, 40 powers of, 42, 43 purpose of, 41 Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 6, 19, 43, 51 Equality under law, 34, 35 of life chances, 33, 34, 37 and nondiscrimination principle, 34 of opportunity, 33, 37 structural changes needed to achieve, 36 Equity and color-blind law, 34, 38 economic, constitutional remedies for, 44 economic liberalism and, 31-32 and equal protection jurisprudence, 43-45 federal policy and, 38-48 meritocracy and, 32-33, 35, 38 perspectives on, 29-38, 48-51 philosophical foundations in U.S., 3~33 preferential treatment and, 33-48 see also Fairness

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340 INDEX Error, see Measurement error; Prediction error; Sampling error; Selection error Eugenics and mental measurement movements, 2~24 Expectancy scores, reporting of, 12, 14, 234, 276, 277 F Fair Labor Standards Act, 59 Fairness in allocation of social resources, 35 economic liberalism and, 32 in employee selection, 255-260 example comparing concepts of, 258-260 in GATB use, 19, 135, 149, 199, 25~261, 277-278 meritocracy and, 32-33 models, 253-258 perspectives on test, 253-258 philosophical foundations in U.S., 34}33 in predicting job performance from test score, 254-255 of race-conscious mechanisms to overcome discrimination, 3 test security and, 11 of VG-GATB system, job seekers' perceptions of, 215-217, 231 see also Equity Federal contracting, 30, 47, 46 Federal Unemployment Insurance Compensation Act, 59 Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), 56, 58, 59 Finger dexterity (F) convergent validity coefficients for, 89, 30~307, 309 practice effects on, 111-112 reliability of subtest, 96 speededness, 74 subtests for, 8~82, 96 see also Psychomotor composite Firefighters v. City of Cleveland, 39, 43, 47 Form perception (P) convergent validity coefficients for, 8~90, 306-309 defined, 74 practice effects on, 111-112 subtests for, 77-78, 90, 308, 309 see also Perceptual composite G General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) administration protocols, 4, 9~102, 114, 115, 196,221,223-224 age of, 3-4, 73 applications, 1, 18, 68, 73, 97, 114, 115 attributes measured by, 3, 74; see also GATB aptitudes and aptitude composites changes in, and effects on existing validity studies, 102 data base on, see USES validity studies of GATB coaching for, 101, 109~110, 113-114, 116 compared to ASVAB, 4, 91-96, 97-98 development of, 1, ~4, 60 61, 74 differential predictions by race, 6, 254 economic benefits of, 2, 8-9, 19, 200, 235-248 equating alternate forms of, 83, 85-86, 97, 98, 317-322 equivalent forms reliabilities, 315-317 fair use of, 25~261, 277-278 flaws in, 4, 11, 73, 84, 98, 99-116 gatekeeping function, 97, 98 guessing, vulnerability to, 100 guidelines for use of, 10, 223 IBM answer sheet, 100 inappropriate use of, 10, 68~9 incentives for increased use of, 1 instructions to examiners, 99-102, 115 item bias in, 107, 108-109, 115 legality of, 200 length of, 214, 222-223 minority average scores on, 7 NCS answer sheet, 99, 102, 103, 106, 114 normative data, 4, 83, 84~5, 97, 98 number of items on, 80 practice effects on scores, 11~113, 116 promotion to employers, 67, 198-201, 286 psychometric properties/quality of, 3 - , 73-98, 206, 303-322 random answers to, 4, 100 reasons given by applicants for not taking, 68-69 reliability, 4, 8~88, 31~317, 325-328

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INDEX 341 reporting of scores, 12, 27~277, 279, 28~286 research needs, 98, 116, 207-208, 282, 284, 287 research ongoing, 5, 61; see also Validity studies role of, 5, 10, 17-18 scope of committee assessment of, 73, 87, 88, 97, 107-108 score computation, 2, 75, 80 86, 103; see also Score adjustments; Test scores; Within-group scoring security flaws, 4, 11, 73, 98, 114, 115 selection error in, 6-7, 255-260 sign language administration of, 221, 223-224 speededness of, 4, 11, 73, 74, 103-105, 108, 110, 115, 116, 224 structure of, 75~0; see also GATB subtests validities, 149-171; see also Construct validity; Convergent validity coefficients; Predictive validities validity generalization applied to, 134-148 versions of, 3 - , 1 1, 74, 85~6, 97, 98, 114, 115 see also Aptitude testsItesting; Intelligence testing; VG-GATB Referral System GATB aptitudes and aptitude composites alternate-form reliabilities for, 93, 96 composites useful for predictions of job performance, 141-142 convergent validity coefficients for, 89-90, 97 correlations with other test batteries, 305 cutoff scores, 134, 136, 219, 224 defined, 74 differential predictions, 17~187; see also Differential prediction analysis differential validity, 174-179; see also Differential validity frequency distributions of validity coefficients for, 152 intercorrelation of, 137-138, 140, 168 and job performance, 84, 181 mean and standard deviation, 84~5 Specific Aptitude Test Batteries on, 13~135, 137 stability coefficients of, 87~8, 311-314 weighting of, 83, 141, 142, 143, 144, 147, 168, 174, 177 see also Cognitive composite; Perceptual composite; Psychomotor composite; and specific aptitudes GATB subtests arithmetic reasoning (6), 77, 98, 101, 103, 105, 108, 307 assemble (11), 80, 81 computation (2), 75, 101, 108 construct validity, 8~91, 98 conversion tables for, 83 convergent validity of, 304-310 disassemble (12), 80, 82 form matching (7), 77-78, 106, 108 intercorrelations of, 86, 97 mark making (8), 75, 78 name comparison (1), 75, 91, 100-101, 102, 108, 109, 309, 310 place (9), 78 scoring, 75, 80, 83, 99-101 three-dimensional space (3), 76, 90, 101, 108, 307, 309-310 turn (10), 78, 79~0 tool matching (5), 77, 103, 104, 108 vocabulary (4), 76, 101, 108, 307 Genetic determinism, 22 Golden Rule procedure, 26~270 Goode, William, 173, 176 Graduate Record Examination, 222 Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 41, 44, 47 H Hammon v. Barry, 50 Handicapped, see People with handicapping conditions Hispanics effects of score adjustment on employment opportunities, 9 normative data for, 85 score adjustments for, 11 test score differences of, 2~21, 27 see also Minorities Hunter, John, see Hunter-Schmidt analyses Hunter-Schmidt analyses average validities compared with committee-derived validities, 5, 14~152, 16~170 corrections for criterion unreliability, 5, 129, 133, 165-166, 170

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342 INDEX corrections for restriction of range, 5, 132, 166-168, 170, 238 corrections for sampling error, 123, 124, 135 correlation between aptitudes across jobs, 139-140 correlation between test score and productivity, ~9, 237, 238 data base used for, 14~150, 160 dimension reduction, 137-143, 147 Dimensiorzality of General Aptitude Test Battery, 19, 23, 84, 121, 135-138, 140, 149, 170, 199 Economic Benef is of Personnel Selection Using Ability Tests, 19, 128, 12~130, 135, 199, 235, 237-238, 244, 247 economic claims for GATB use, 9, 19, 199, 235, 237-238, 240, 247 Fairness of the General Aptitude Test Battery, 19, 135, 149, 199, 25~261, 277-278 interpretation of small variances in validities, 131 job classification scheme, 136, 137, 143-145; see also Job families job-matching model, 242-245, 247-248 means and standard deviations of validity coefficients, 151 models of economic gains from job matching, 242 with performance criterion, 161, 165-166 performance factors used by, 22-23, 136-143 referral ratio, 237 regression equations for predicting job performance, 144 145 reliability correction, 140, 141, 165-168, 170 sample sizes, 139 selection ratio, 23~241 75 percent rule, 131 standard deviation of worker productivity, 237, 239 supervisor training correlation with job family, 169 Test Validation for 12,000 Jobs, 19, 121, 128, 135, 136, 143-145, 149 top-down selection scheme, 19, 20 with training success criterion, 155, 161, 166 utility analysis, 235-241 Intelligence (g) and genetic determinism, 22, 26 as a measure of performance, 3, 19, 146 and validity generalization, 22-27 Intelligence aptitude (G) convergent validity coefficients for, 8~90, 305-307, 309 defined, 74, 138, 139, 141, 142 and job performance, 137 practice effects on, 111-112 subtests for, 76, 77, 90, 305, 307 temporal stability coefficient for, 87-88 Intelligence testing Army Alpha, 23, 2~25 Binet scale, 23, 24 claims for, 23, 27 critics of, 25-26 dangers of, 3, 25, 27 and eugenics, 23-24 of groups, 23, 24-26 history of IQ testing, 23-24 misuse of data from, 3, 23-24, 25-27 need for, 24 oral (Army Beta), 24 relevance to current policy, 26-27 Item-bias analyses detection of irrelevant difficulty, 107 differential item functioning, 107 Mantel-Haenszel procedure, 108 measures of internal bias, 107 point-biserial correlations, 107-110 proportion attempted, 107-108 proportion correct, 107, 108-109 purpose, 107 J Job counselors, see Vocational counseling Job families construction of, 136, 143-145, 147 complexity groupings, 114 145 credibility values for best predictors by, 165 criterion measures appropriate for, 158 distribution of USES validity studies over, 16~161 multivariate matching with, 245 optimal predictors by, 16~169

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INDEX 343 normative data for IV and V, 12, 85 predictive power of, 143-147 sample jobs in, 144 sample sizes of USES studies by, 16~161 representativeness of normative data for, 85 temporal changes in, 162 test standard deviations within, 167 validity variation across, 143-147, 154-155, 15~161, 164-165, 168, 170, 174-175, 177-178, 206 weighting of abilities for, 143, 145-146, 174, 177-178 Job matching aggregate economic gains, 241-245 economy-wide models, 245 efficiency of VG-GATB system, 8 Hunter-Schmidt model, 242-245 methods in United States, 52-54 multivariate model, 243-244, 247-248 and productivity, ~9 subjective judgments of counselors in, 215 univariate model, 243, 247-248 see also Dictionary of Occupational Titles Job performance cognitive abilities and, 22-23, 136-138, 141-142, 168 composite scores and, 84 data on typical applicants, 125 improvements claimed for VG-GATB system, 201, 203-204, 210, 213 external factors influencing, 155 general ability theory of, 137, 139 intelligence (g) and, 146 measures, 5, 201, 204, 205; see also Supervisor ratings of job incumbents multiple regression techniques for predicting, 137 optimal predictors of, 16~169 psychomotor ability and, 23 sex of job seeker and, 158 specific aptitude theory of, 137 test score and, 9, 18, 121, 125, 173, 182, 204, 210, 217, 254-255, 263 validities for USES studies by, 155, 158, 16~161, 164-165, 168 by workers referred under VG-GATB system, 201, 203-205, 207, 210, 213, 231 Job seekers attitudes about VG-GATB system, 215 effects of VG-GATB system on, 214-218, 231-232 job search methods, 54 registration at Employment Service offices, 66 see also Employee selection Job Service administration of, 61 benefits of use of VG-GATB system, 237-241 clientele, 216, 219, 224 computer automation of, 62, 66, 198 data on operations, 209 employer relations promotion, 67 Employers Committees, 57, 67 federal role in, 57-58 functions, 63-69, 193 funding levels, 60, 66 historical background, 57 information and data services, 65 intake process, 68 interviews, 64, 67 introduction of VG-GATB Referral System, 20; see also Pilot programs legislation affecting, 57-59 local-office characteristics, 62-66 local-office operations, 66-69 number of registrants, 55 placements, number of, 55, 237 pools for filling job orders, 63~4 program cost, 55 recruiting, 64 65 referral process, 68, 193 referrals, number of, 55, 66 research programs, 65 single-employer-office profile, 69 specialized services provided by, 64-65 structure of, 61-62 testing, 64 traditional-office profile, 67~8 veterans preference by, 58, 67, 225, 228 see also State Employment Security/Service Agencies; U.S. Employment Service Johnson, Lyndon, 37 (quote), 42 Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara County, California, 46, 49

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344 INDEX K Kerner Commission, 31 Kevles, Daniel, 23-25 Kirkland v. New York State Department of Correctional Services, 50 L Labor Exchange Administration, 59 Labor market (U.S.), job-matching methods, 52-54 Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, opinion on race-conscious selection procedures, 49, 50, 257 Lippmann, Walter, 2~26 Local 28, Sheet Metal Workers' International Associatiorl v. EEOC, 48 Local Veteran Employment Representatives, 67, 227, 228 M Madigan, Richard M., 205-206 Manual dexterity (M) convergent validity coefficients for, 89, 30~307, 309 defined, 74 practice effects on, 111-113 reliability of subtests for, 96 speededness, 74 subtests for, 78, 79~0, 96 see also Psychomotor aptitude Marshall, Burke, 3~37, 42 McKinney, M. W., 202-203 Measurement error sources of, 100, 129, 140, 278, 310 and test reliability, 87, 310 Merit hiring, 32 Meritocracy, and equality, 32-33, 35, 38 Meta-analysis, 18 defined, 18, 119 procedure, 120 of race effects in performance measures, 18~187 robustness of evidence from, 120 uses in scientific research, 119~120, 135 see also Validity generalization Minorities biases against, in ability tests, 5 - , 259 effect of rank-ordered test scores on, 2,3,7,9, 11,20,220 effect of VG-GATB system on, 21~220, 231-232 effects of score adjustments on, 9, 21~219, 231-232 federal commitment to well-being of, 30, 47, 261 GATB predictive validities for, 5-7, 9, 103-105 job performance, 7, 9 normative data for, 85 perceptions of fairness of VG-GATB system, 217 pooling of samples from USES studies, 162 referral and placement rates, 21~219 scientific justification for adjustment of test scores of, 6 8 test performance, 7, 11, 105-106, 172-173, 187, 219 see also Blacks; Hispanics; Native Americans; Non-English-speaking people Motor coordination (K) convergent validity coefficients for, 89, 30~307, 309 defined, 74 practice effects on, 111-112 reliability of subtest for, 96 speededness, 74 subtest for, 78, 96 see also Psychomotor composite N National Computer Systems (NCS) answer sheet, construct validity threat from, 99, 102, 106 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Force, 93 Native Americans effects of score adjustment on employment opportunities, 9 normative data for, 85, 280 performance on ability tests, 27 Nondiscrimination principle, 34 Non-English-speaking people assessment of, 21~220 suitability of GATE for, 10, 232 handling through VG-GATB system, 192 Nonreading Aptitude Test Battery, 223 Normative data

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INDEX 345 ASVAB, 93 GATB, 83, 84-85, 97, 98 General Working Population Sample, 84 85, 97, 98, 100 1980 Profile of American Youth Population, 93, 94 purpose of, 84 representativeness of, 85, 93, 97 in restriction-of-range corrections, 94 in statistical analysis of referral rules, 263-264 strength of, in GATB compared with ASVAB, 4 for within-group scoring, 85, 97, 27~274 North Carolina, pilot programs for VG-GATB Referral System, 20, 202-203 Numerical aptitude (N) convergent validity coefficients for, 89, 306, 307-308, 309 defined, 74 as a predictor of job performance, 137 practice effects on, 111-112 subtests for, 75, 77 o Observed validities decline in, 170 effect of unreliability in supervisor ratings on, 122, 169 estimation of true validities from, 121-124, 126 for job complexity categories, 144, 158, 169 by performance criterion, 158, 169 range of coefficients over USES studies, 152 restriction-of-range corrections, 126-127 sampling error of, 122, 132, 164 by training criterion, 158 variability of, 123 Occupational Analysis Field Centers legislation establishing, 59 purpose, location, and programmatic direction of, 61 Occupational Analysis Pattern, predictive validity of, 143, 147 Office of Federal Contract Compliance, 46 Office of Personnel Management, 221, 229 On-line Data Display System (ODDS) p Pegues v. Mississippi State Employment Service, 200 People with handicapping conditions ability testing of, 22~223, 232-233 cognitive measures for, 221 effects of rank-ordering on, 224 effects of VG-CiATB system on, 22~225, 232-233 GATB use on, 10, 223-22S, 232 Job Service intake process for, 68 legislation affecting USES involvement with, 59 referral mechanisms for, 10, 14, 192, 196, 22~225, 232 research findings on testing of, 221-223 test scores, 220 veterans, 14 Perceptual composite alternate-form reliabilities for, 93 cognitive and psychomotor abilities correlated with, 22-23, 137-138, 168 convergent validity coefficients for, 89-90, 97, 309 effect sizes with alternate-form retesting, 327 effect sizes with same-form retesting, 326 estimated effect size of practice on scores,11~113 exclusion of, from Hunter-Schmidt analyses, 137-139, 141-143, 147 prediction from cognitive and psychomotor composites, 139, 141 score computation for, 83 spatial ability correlated with, 141-142, 244 stability coefficients by age and test-retest interval, 88, 96, 312-315 weighting of, 144, 168 Perceptual composite validities age of job seeker and, 156, 218 for clerical work, 244 criterion unreliability corrections in, 168 differential by sex, 158 and education of job seeker, 157 and experience of job seeker, 156-157 frequency distributions of, 152

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346 INDEX across job families, 15~155, 158-159, 161, 164, 168, 169, 171 for job performance, 155, 161, 164, 168, 169 means and standard deviations, 151 for predictive versus concurrent studies, 155 restriction-of-range corrections and, 168 sampling error corrections in, 164 by sex, 158 for training success, 155, 161, 164, 168, 169 by year of study, 159 Performance-based score adjustments, 7-8, 11, 255-258, 262, 267, 278, 279, 283 Pilot studies of VG-GATB Referral System Chrysler Corporation study, 204 205 community resistance to, 10, 210 cooperative effort required for, 13, 208 design flaws, 202, 208 discontinuation of, because of community resistance, 10 employer role in, 13 evidence available from, 209 features of, 1-2 job performance effects in, 201 information available from, 9 Madigan, Richard M., 205-206 needs, 13 North Carolina employer survey, 202-203 North Carolina study of office effectiveness, 20, 201, 202 office automation in, 197 Philip Morris study, 203-204 Roanoke, Virginia, survey, 215, 21~217 sewing matching operator study, 205-206, 210 states participating in, 13, 20, 197, 201 Position Analysis Questionnaire, 143 Power tests, 103, 108 Practice effects and alternate-form retesting, 110, 112-113 effects on GATB scores, 11~113 and same-form retesting, i 1~111, 113 see also Coaching Predictive validities (GATB) for all jobs in U.S. economy, 3, 8, 12, 19, 130, 133, 170, 200, 206, 214; see also Validity generalization average, of aptitude composites, 5, 169-170 committee estimates of, 5, 15~152, 168, 253 compared to ASVAB, 4, 93-96, 98 corrected for sampling error, 164 criterion unreliability corrections and, 5, 168, 169-170 date of study and, 158-163, 170 frequency distributions for GATB composites, 152 across job families, 15~155, 158-161, 170 means and standard deviations, 15~151 for minority job seekers, 5-7, 9, 103-105 overestimates of, 9, 170 in predictive versus concurrent studies, 15~155 psychomotor composite exclusion and, 139 by race, see Differential prediction analysis; Differential validity research support for, 5; see also Hunter-Schmidt studies; Validity studies restriction-of-range corrections and, 5, 94, 162, 206 sample size and, 140, 151, 16~161 by sex, see Differential prediction analysis; Differential validity for supervisor ratings, 7, 8, 94, 155, 16~161, 169 temporal stability of, 161-163, 169 for training criteria, =5, 94, 97-98, 155, 16~161, 169 weighting of specific aptitudes and, 141, 142 see also Correlation coefficients; Differential validity Preferential treatment by race, ethnicity, or gender admissions policies at universities, 35 in affirmative action programs, 37-38, 45-48 arguments against, 33-35 arguments for, 33, 35-37 as compensation for past injustices, 36, 37 as discrimination, 22

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INDEX 347 and equality of life chances, 37 and equality under law, 34, 35 federal policy and, 38-48 and individualism, 34, 35, 36, 37 social precedents for, 37-38 under Title VII of Civil Rights Act, 38-39, 41~3 vulnerability of employers on, 39, 47 see also Affirmative action programs; Veterans' preference Private Industry Councils, 57, 66 Productivity and economic liberalism, 31 GATB use and, 8-9, 235-248 job matching and, 8-9, 247 and meritocracy, 32 supervisor ratings and, 246 test score and, 8-9, 237, 246 U.S. vs. Japanese, 17 variability in, 9 Professional and Administrative Career Examination (PACE), 221 Psychometric theory, on factors affecting test validity, 17-19 Psychomotor composite and answer sheet design, 102, 115 coaching study with mentally retarded adults,113-114 convergent validity coefficients for, 89, 97 equivalent forms reliabilities, 317 estimated effect size of practice on scores,ll~113 Hunter-Schmidt composite, 136-139 perceptual and cognitive composites correlated with, 137-138, 143, 168 reliabilities for, 96 research needs on, 98 score computation for, 83 stability coefficients for, 88 weighting of, 136, 138, 144, 145-146, 168 Psychomotor composite validities age of job seeker and, 156, 218 criterion unreliability corrections and, 168 decline in, 163 education correlated with, 157 effect sizes with alternate-form retesting, 328 effect sizes with same-form retesting, 327 experience of job seeker correlated with, 156-157 across job families, 154-155, 158-159, 161, 164 165, 168, 171 for job performance, 23, 141-142, 147, 15~151, 155, 161, 164-165, 168, 169 restriction of range and, 145, 168 sampling error corrections in, 164 by sex, 158 stability by age and test-retest interval, 312-315 by study type, 155 for training success, 155, 161, 164 165, 168 by year of study, 159 Public Employment Service administration of, 56, 60 characteristics of applicants, 53, 55 federal involvement in, 55, 58, 6~61; see also U.S. Employment Service functions of, 55-57, 60 historical development, 55 60 job-matching role, 52-53 legislative basis, 56 local offices, 57, 60, 62-66 operations at local level, 66~9 state-level activities, 55-57, 61-62: see also Job Service; State Employment Security Agencies structure, 6~66 use patterns, 53-54 veterans' benefits under, 225, 227-228 R Race/ethnic it y bias in speededness of tests, 10~106, 115 bias in supervisor ratings on basis on, 6, 185-187, 188 differential predictability of GATB by, 6, 157, 162 preferential treatment based on, 33-38 temporal stability of GATB for, 87, 162 Racial classifications benign, 37, 252 constitutionality of, 34, 37, 38 Rawls, John, 33, 35 Recommendations GATB use, 282-283 handicapped people, 14, 224, 233, 288-289

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348 INDEX operational use of VG-GATB system, 11, 281-283 pilot studies, 13, 208, 287 promotion of VG-GATB program, 12-13, 207, 248, 286-287 referral methods, 11-12, 232, 279-280, 282-284 referral rules, 12, 279-280, 283-284 score adjustments, 11-12, 279, 283-284 score reporting, 12, 276-277, 280, 284-286 test security, 11, 116, 282 veterans' preference, 13-14, 234, 287-288 vocational counseling, 224, 233, 234 Recommendations for research bias in supervisor ratings, 187 effects of VG-GATB system, 208, 287 forms development for GATB, 98, 116 job classification scheme, 148 normative data, 98, 280, 284 psychomotor aptitude measures, 98 reducing speededness, 11, 116, 282 referral rules, 280, 284 scoring system for GATB, 98 test equating, 86, 98, 116 Referral rules adverse impact of, 261 analysis of, 262-266 committee recommendation, 277-280, 283-284; see Combined Rules Referral Plan effects of, 266-268, 279 equity and efficiency in, 261-274 minimum competency, 262, 268, 279 performance-based score, top-down, 262, 268, 278-279 raw-score, top-down, 261, 266, 267, 268, 270, 278 top-down, 21, 198, 210, 211, 214, 22~229, 233 within-group percentile score, top-down, 261-262, 266-267, 268, 278 and work-force efficiency, 21, 198, 211 see also Employee selection; Performance-based score adjustments; Score adjustments; Vocational counseling; Within-group percentile scores Referral ratio policy, 22 Regents of the University of California Bakke, 35, 46 Regression equations/analyses and correlations between aptitudes, 137 development of, 142 for predicting job performance, 137, 139, 142, 144-145 for relating composite scores to job performance, 84, 139 for training success, 144 weighting of aptitudes in, 139 see also Differential prediction analysis Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 59, 220 Reliability alternate forms, 93, 317-322 ASVAB, 93 coefficients, 31~311 data availability on, 165 defined, 86, 310 equivalent forms, 31~317 of GATB aptitude scores, 86~8, 138, 307, 308, 31~317 GATB compared with ASVAB, 4, 93, 97-98 internal consistency estimates of, 109-110, 317; see also Item-bias analysis interrater, 165-166 and item selection strategy, 270 measurement error and, 87 of measurements, defined, 139 n. l measures of, 129, 139, 165 methods for estimating, 87, 311 overestimates of, 165 of supervisor ratings, 122, 128-129, 132-133, 145, 162-163, 165-166 temporal stability, 87, 311-314 see also Criterion unreliability corrections Restriction-of-range correction for ASVAB validities, 94 committee basis for, 170 computation of, 94, 126-127 effect on GATB validities, 5, 132, 145 effect on observed validities, 127 Hunter-Schmidt, 5, 128, 132, 145, 166-167, 170 in predictive versus concurrent studies, 154 problem in determining, 125, 132 purpose of, 132

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INDEX 349 restriction ratio estimation for, 125, 127-128, 167 year of study add, 162 Reynolds, Wm. Bradford, 21, 34 (quote), 48-49, 252 Rhoades, Dennis, 229 S Sampling error computation of, 122-123, 163-164 corrections for, 123-124, 132, 16~165 defined, 122 in differential validity studies, 176 effects of, 153, 16~165 reliability measure based on, 139~140 size of sample and, 153, 163-164 San Francisco Police Officers' Association v. San Francisco, 50 Schmidt, Frank, see Hunter-Schmidt analyses Scholastic Aptitude Test, 110, 114, 221-222, 232 School desegregation, 39, 44 Score adjustments for affirmative action purposes, 51, 213, 230 for aptitude composites, 83-84 complexity in VG-GATB system, 84, 97 conversion tables for, 20 drawbacks of, 270 for error, 80, 83, 99 for guessing, 75 item elimination, 50 for job families, 83-84 legality of, 3, 10, 48~9, 50, 200, 218, 230 for NCS answer sheet, 103 purpose of, 2, 21, 84 recommendations, 11-12, 252, 279~280, 283-286 reporting to employers, 12, 14, 27~277, 279, 280, 28~286 reverse discrimination in, 3, 252 scientific justification for, 6~, 255-258, 266-267, 278-279 theoretical comparisons of, 253 for veterans, see Veterans' preference see also Fairness; Performance-based score adjustments; Test scores; Within-group percentile scores Security, see Test security Selection error differential prediction and, 178 false-acceptance rates, 6, 7, 255-258 false-rejection rates, 6, 7, 255-258 impact on minorities, 6-7, 178, 261-268 Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, 227 Seymour, Richard T., 257-258 Skill Qualification Tests, 95-96 Slavery, 31, 34 Social justice, philosophical foundations in U.S., 30-33 Social Security Act of 1935, 56, 58, 59 Spatial aptitude (S) convergent validity coefficient for, 89~90, 97, 306-309 correlated with perceptual ability, 244 defined, 74 practice effects on, 111-112 predictive power of, 142, 171, 244 subtest for, 76, 9~91, 309 validity for skilled trades, 244 Spea~,~an, Charles, 102-103 Specific Aptitude Test Batteries, 13~135, 136, 174, 177 Speededness of tests and coachability, 4, 11, 73, 115, 116 and construct validities, 95, 102-105, 115 and content of test questions, 104 defined, 103 and difficulty of items, 108-109 GATB subtests, 7~78, 80 index of, 108 and NCS answer sheet design, 102, 115 omit rates and, 92 percentages attempting and number of items correct, 10~105 and point-biserial correlations, 109 psychological effects of, 106 and quality of work, 103 raciaVethnic correlates of, 104-106 and random answers, 4, 100-101 research needs on, 11, 105-106, 116, 282 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 85, 100, 178,303-304,310,317 State Employment Security/Service Agencies characteristics, 61 computer automation of, 62, 66

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350 INDEX coordination with state rehabilitation agencies, 14 federal support for, 60 historical background, 56 names, by state, 62~3 role in evaluating VG-GATB system, 13, 208 with pilot programs, 13, 20 relationship of unemployment insurance and employment referral functions in, 61 resource allocation to, 62 service delivery approaches, 61 State Test Research Units, 59 State Veterans' Employment Representative, 227 Studies of GATB validity, see USES studies of GATB validity Supervisor ratings of job incumbents accuracy in estimating job performance, 6 aspects of performance considered in. 187 bias in, 6, 185-187, 188 GATB validities for, 7, 8, 94, 155, 158, 169, 170 and job family, 169, 170 and productivity, 246 reliability of, 122, 12~129, 132-133, 145, 165-166 and sex of job seeker, 158 by Standard Descriptive Rating Scale, 174, 175, 178, 185 true distinguished from observed, 128-129 Swarthout, David, 173, 174, 176, 178, 274 Synk, David J., 173, 174, 176, 178, 274 T Teamsters v. United States, 42 Terman, Lewis, 24 Test Development Field Centers, 59, 61, 163, 175, 178, 199, 204, 221 Test equating and comparability of constructs measured, 31~321 of GATB subtests, 85~6, 97, 98 goalsof,317 and sampling errors, 321-322 standard errors of, 86 techniques for, 317-318 test difficulty differences and, 85~6 Test performance item difficulty and, 107; see also Item-bias analyses familiarity with test and, 106 by minorities, 7, 11, 105-106, 172-173, 187, 219 point-biserial correlations of, 109 practice effects on, 106, 11~113; see also Coaching random answers and, 4, 10~101, 109 speed of test and, 103-106; see also Speededness of tests Test scores age of job seekers and, 156, 218 and alternate-form retesting, 110, 112-113 benefits of rank-ordering by, 20 chance scores and coaching for power subtests, 10~101 comparability for handicapped people, 222 correction for error, 80, 99 correction/penalty for guessing, 75, 102 and differential validity, 173-174 effects of rank-ordering on low scorers, 217-218 effects of rank-ordering on minorities, 2, 3, 20, 218-219, 266-268 expectancy scores, 12, 14, 276, 277 Golden Rule procedure for reducing group differences in, 268-270 of handicapped people, 220 impacts on job prospects, 196 and imperfect prediction, 256-257 and job performance, 9, 18, 121, 125, 173, 182,204,210,217,262 practice effects on, 11~113 and productivity, ~9, 237, 246 reporting of, 12, 251-252, 274-277, 279 and same-form retesting, 11~111, 113 and supervisor ratings, 7, 121, 174 and work experience of employees, 206 see also Score adjustments; Total-group percentile scores; Within-group percentile scores Test security ASVAB, 4, 91-92, 98, 114 availability of forms outside government, 4 and administration protocols, 4 fairness and, 11

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INDEX 35 1 flaws in GATB, 4, 11, 73, 98, 114, 115 and number of forms, 4, 11, 73 recommendations, 11, 116, 282 Tests, see Ability tests Thorndike, E.L., 23 (quote), 146 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and ability testing, 39 ambiguity in, 39~3 congressional intent of, 39, 43 definition of discrimination, 38, 40 enforcement of, 39, 40 implications for state Employment Service system, 58 individual rights and group effects under, 39-43 1972 amendments to, 42~3 pattern or practice suits under, 40 and preferential treatment, 3~39, 41~3 and score conversions, 49 section 703(a)(2), 41 section 703(j), 3~39, 49 section 706(g), 45 unlawful employment practices under, 40, 41 USES programs under, 59 see also Equal Employment Opportunity Total-group percentile scores expectancy scores from, 12, 276 reporting of, 275-276 Trainability, measures of, 92, 98 Training programs criterion-referenced assessment for, 96 for disadvantaged job applicants, 56, 58, 59 race-conscious admission policies, 49 for test administrators, 114 for veterans, 59, 64 Training success credibility values for, 165 external factors influencing, 155 measure of, 155 regression equations for, 144 reliability value, 165-166 and sex of job seeker, 158 validities for, 155, 158, 160 161, 16~165, 168, 169 Tribe, Laurence, 36, 44, 45, 47 True validities correlations between, 141 defined, 121 effect of reliability correction on, 129 effects of sampling error corrections on, 164-165 estimation from observed validities, 121-124 joint distribution of, 142 population basis, 122, 124 underestimation of, 166 variance over studies, 139-140 U Unemployment insurance administrative responsibilities for, 61 legislative basis, 56, 58, 59 number of claimants, 55 registration for, 68 relationship to employment referral functions, 61 work test, 64 Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 6, 19, 43, 51 United States Code, Title 38 USES programs under, 59 veterans programs under, 58, 64, 67, 227 United Steel Workers of America v. Weber, 46, 49 U.S. Employment Service (USES) administration, 59 economic pressures on, 60, 200 201, 218 employment testing program, 17-22; see also General Aptitude Test Battery; VG-GATB Referral System funding for, 56, 60 historical background, 55-57 legislation affecting, 59 placement activity, 56-57 policy emphasis shifts, 56-57 programs, 59 public image, 57, 191 research functions, 6~61, 65 role of, 56 staffing, 60 structure, 6~61 policy goals of, 21, 191 see also Job Service; Public Employment Service; Validity studies USES technical reports, see Hunter-Schmidt analyses USES validity studies of GATB

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352 INDEX committee analysis of, 5, 88 89, 97, 149-171 criteria used in, 134, 160 difficulties/problems, 135, 136, 16~163, 165 of differential validities, 157-158, 173-178 distribution overjob families, 160 161 frequency distribution of validity coefficients by composite, 152 generalizability of jobs studied to jobs not studied, 136, 163-168, 169-171 1945-1980 (515), 135, 136-137, 13~140, 149-151, 154, 160-161, 166; see also Hunter-Schmidt analyses 1970s to 1980s (264), 136, 150-152, 154, 160-161, 164 165, 167-169 number of jobs covered by, 137 predictive versus concurrent, 152, 154-155 quality and comparability of, 150 by race, 157 reliability data in, 165 sample sizes and characteristics, 134-138, 145, 151-152, 153, 157, 160, 162, 174, 175, 179 by sex, 157 temporal stability problem, 15~163, 169 Specific Aptitude Test Battery development, 134-135, 136, 174, 177, 179 Utility analysis, see Hunter-Schmidt analyses; Economic claims for VG-GATB system V Validities criterion-related, defined, 121 n.1, 150; see also Job performance; Supervisor ratings; Training System success Validity studies GATB, summarized, 151 moderators of, 152-160 omnibus statistical test for difference among, 131 by race, see Differential validity restriction ratios, 125, 127-128 by sex, see Differential validity situational aspects of, 135 see also Convergent validity coefficients; Construct validity; General Aptitude Test Battery; Observed validities; Predictive validity; True validities Validity generalization age of job seekers and, 156 applicability to all jobs, 8, 19, 129, 133, 170 applied to GATB, 13~148 approach, 121 conceptual basis, 22, 132 connecting sample and population, 122, 129-130, 133 criterion-related validity research and, 13~136, 171; see also Hunter-Schmidt analyses and cognitive and psychomotor factors, 136-143 criterion reliability in, 122, 12~129, 130, 132-133, 165-166 definition, 1 n.1 experience of job seeker and, 15~157, 206, 216 and intelligence (g), 22-27 interpretation of small variances in, 13~131 and job families, 143-147, 154 regression equations relating composite scores to job performance, 84 restriction of range in, 122, 12~128, 130, 132, 154-155, 162, 166-168 sample size and, 135, 152, 153, 160-161 and sampling error, 122-124, 130, 132, 135, 152, 153, 163-165 and study type, 154-155 test score variance and, 128 theoretical framework, 22-23, 121-133, 169 and year of study, 158-163 see also Meta-analysis; Predictive validities; VG-GATB Referral of ASVAB, 93-96 costs of, 43 definition of applicant groups for jobs in, 127 file drawer problem, 130 flaws in, 9, 127 form changes and, 102 of GATB, 149-171 of GATB construct, 8~91, 97 of handicapped groups, 223-224

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INDEX 353 sample sizes and compositions, 89 technical requirements for, 43 see also Hunter-Schmidt analyses; USES validity studies of GATB Verbal aptitude (V) convergent validity coefficients for, 89, 306, 307, 309 defined, 74 practice effects on, 111-112 as a predictor of job performance, 137 subtest for, 76 see also Cognitive composite Veterans employment offices for, 56 employment opportunity legislation and programs for, 59, 64, 225, 227-228 intake for employment registration, 68 need/desire to be tested, 216, 225 number using Employment Service, 55 qualified, defined, 228, 233 responsibility for employment and training services, 227 score adjustments for, 230-231, 234 VG-GATB system file search for, 192 Veterans Employment, Training and Counseling Act of 1987, 59 Veterans' Job Training Act, 64 Veterans of Foreign Wars, 225, 226, 230 Veterans Placement Offices, 56 Veterans' preference in civil service, 38, 225, 227, 229 defined, 226, 228 eligibility lists, 227 history of, 225-227 incorporation in VG-GATB system, 10, 13-14, 197, 22~229, 233-234 by Job Service, 67, 225 legal basis for, 10, 58, 59, 64, 67, 227, 229 point system, 226, 227 Public Employment Service and, 227-228 referral priority by USES, 38 reporting to employers, 14, 234 and within-group scoring, 229-231 Veterans' Preference Act of 1944, 22~227 VG-GATB Referral System aggregate economic effects, 247 applicants' attitudes about, 215-217, 231 benefits of, 8, 9, 27, 193, 210-211, 213, 247; see also Economic claims for VG-GATB system candidates selected per job opening, 212 community resistance to, 10, 210 computerization, 2, 68, 192, 197-198, 214 conceptual model of, 2, 192-198, 215, 218 concerns about, 8, 2~27, 97, 199; see also specific population groups constitutionality/legality of, 48~9, 51 counseling services, 193, 196 effects on employers, 9, 203, 21~211, 212-213, 231, 247 effects on job seekers, 21~218, 231-232 effects on low scorers, 8, 9, 217-218, 231 effects on minority job seekers, 21~220, 231-232 effects on older applicants, 156, 218, 231 effects on people with handicapping conditions, 22~225, 232-233 effects on veterans, 228-231, 233-234 efficiency of, 8, 193, 198 employee selection basis, 2, 11-12, 88, 19~197, 198 employer attitudes about, 203, 210-211, 212-213, 231 exclusive use, 27-28, 216, 218, 225, 231 file searches, 192, 193, 195-198 full-service office, 192, 19~195 GATB testing, 192, 194, 196, 214 implementation of, 201-206, 207-208; see also Pilot studies job classifications used in, 144, 147; see also Job families job order processing, 193 job seekers excluded from, 192, 196 legality of, 200, 206 local-office profile, 68-69 logistics, 210-211, 21 ~215 market penetration, 201, 202, 207 office effectiveness, 201, 202, 207 operational use of, 11, 97, 281-283 orientation, 193, 196 negative effects of, 214, 217-218 performance of referred workers, 201, 203-205, 207, 210, 213, 231, 246