readiness is potentially reduced. The September workshop focused on DHS’s operational and law enforcement personnel. The November workshop concentrated on DHS policy and program personnel with top secret security clearances. Law enforcement personnel are defined as individuals who carry a weapon and are charged with enforcing the law. Operational personnel include a wide range of emergency responders such as firefighters, federal emergency responders working in the field, and emergency medical staff. Many positions within DHS require employees to have a security clearance. Employees with high-level security clearances are often exposed to traumatic and disturbing information as part of their jobs. DHS is concerned that individuals will not seek assistance because of fears of jeopardizing their security clearance.

In planning the workshops, the committee noted resilience research and interventions are an emerging area of study, and many factors appear to influence both individual and organizational resilience. As a result, they reached out to a broad array of experts from various fields including resilience research, occupation health psychology, emergency response, performance measurement, high-reliability organizations, law enforcement, work design, and private-sector programs, to name a few.

Although the two workshops focused primarily on specific groups of personnel, many of the issues discussed were relevant for all DHS employees. Throughout the workshops, themes emerged in the individual presentations and participants’ comments (see Box 1-1). The themes listed are the most frequent, cross-cutting topics that arose during the workshops, but they do not constitute a full or exhaustive overview of the field.

The planning committee’s role was limited to planning and convening the workshops. This summary has been prepared by designated rapporteurs as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshops. Opinions and comments contained in the summary are those of individual workshop participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all workshop participants. Statements in the summary should not to be construed as findings, conclusions, or recommendations of the planning committee or the Institute of Medicine.



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