sions about prioritizing the development and introduction of potential new vaccines. In the committee’s view, a “new vaccine” (or “vaccine candidate”) can refer not only to a completely novel vaccine but also to an existing vaccine given improvements to some of its features, including innovations in its production or delivery methods.

The audience and potential users of SMART Vaccines include those institutions funding and carrying out basic biomedical research, private firms involved in vaccine production, philanthropic foundations with a strong interest in vaccination and global health programs, international health organizations, and high-level decision makers, such as ministers for health, commerce, and finance or senior administrators.

The committee’s charge

Phase I of the study was supported by the National Vaccine Program Office of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Phase I statement of task is presented in Box S-1. Phase II of the study is oriented toward expanding and enhancing the capabilities of the model and transforming SMART Vaccines Beta to SMART Vaccines 1.0.

This report describes the committee’s approach toward demonstrating a proof of concept using three hypothetical vaccine candidates that have not yet been developed. The committee included a broad range of attributes that represent the various perspectives relating to vaccine development and impact. Some of the data for these attributes are readily available (such as population characteristics), while other data are estimated by the user (e.g., qualitative attributes of the vaccines) or through expert opinion (e.g., disease burden or cold-chain requirements).

Because the data inputs in this report were not intended to be precise, readers should not take any output of SMART Vaccines Beta as the “exact” or “recommended” priority value relating to any particular vaccine; instead the outputs should be seen only as illustrative examples of how the model and beta software currently operate.

Previous Institute of Medicine reports

Previous Institute of Medicine (IOM) studies from 1985–1986 and 2000 that focused on vaccine prioritization provided specific lists of vaccine ranks. The two-volume IOM study New Vaccine Development, released in 1985–1986, prioritized vaccines both for the United States and from an

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