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FIGURE 3-1 Multiple and overlapping lenses for viewing health disparities. SOURCE: Koh et al. (2010).

and an overview of data regarding several Healthy People health indicators.

Healthy People began in 1979 under Julius Richmond, then assistant secretary for health and surgeon general. The document sets out health goals for the nation, and the framework is updated every 10 years. In 2010, Healthy People 2010 (HHS, 2000) concluded a decade of an inclusive public process that reflected input and feedback from a diverse group of individuals and organizations nationwide. With 28 focus areas and 467 specific objectives, Healthy People 2010 had two overarching goals: first, to improve both the quantity and the quality of life and, second, to eliminate health disparities.

Box 3-1 identifies the 10 leading health indicators, which cover 31 objectives. Preliminary findings show that over the past decade progress toward or achievement of the targets has occurred for about half of these objectives.

In another analysis of the leading health indicators in Healthy People 2010, Sondik and colleagues (2010) evaluated progress toward meeting the targets. They concluded that “although some progress has been made, there is much work to be done toward the Healthy People 2010 targets



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