TABLE 6.1 Multiple Attribute Analysis of Alternative Carbamate Pesticide Production Processes

(1)—Existing Institute Process
(2)—Non-MIC Processes
(3)—Process Producing Gaseous MIC Consumed Immediately
(4)—Alternative MIC-based Process Arrangements, Reducing Onsite Storage

Potentially Important Attributes External/Regulatory Pressures Manufacturing Approach
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Liability for harm to surrounding communities   X X  
Community acceptance   X ?  
Liability for worker injury due to MIC exposure   X ?  
Liability for worker injury due to dust exposure X      
Wastewater disposal requirements X     X
Length of time for regulatory approval X      
Internal/Cost Pressures
Product purity X     X
Cost and availability of chemical feedstocks X     X
Capital costs X      
Equipment O&M costs X      
Costs of safety equipment ? ? ? ?
Process corrosivity X     X
Process yield X      
Availability of in-house expertise X     X
Previous experience with large-scale production X      

NOTE: “X” indicates that the given pesticide manufacturing approach performs better than the others along the given attribute. “?” indicates that information available to the committee was insufficient to evaluate the approach along the given attribute.

The complex, multi-attribute decision-making Bayer and the legacy owners faced when modifying the MIC and carbamate-pesticide production processes is a challenge that will be familiar to many in the chemical industry. Incorporating risk considerations into these analyses can be particularly challenging as the final decision may affect individuals and organizations beyond the company itself, e.g., reducing or increasing requirements for local emergency responders. In fact, several experts in chemical engineering have suggested that the lack of effective methods for analyzing such trade-offs is a major barrier to the widespread use of inherently safer processes (ISP; Khan and Amyotte, 2004). With this in mind, the committee chose to present one possible approach for analyzing these and other trade-offs, while recognizing other methods are also possible.

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