FIGURE 7.1 U.S. regional innovation clusters discussed in Chapter 7.
In a number of Asian clusters, most notably Taiwan’s Hsinchu Science Park, research and manufacturing functions are tightly linked, an entire industry chain is present within the cluster to manufacture and commercialize the technologies emerging from the laboratories. While this phenomenon is observable in many U.S. clusters, a number of the clusters featured in this study, have seen U.S. developed technologies2 manufactured outside the United States because so much of the value chain is located there.
John A. Matthews, an Australian academic who has extensively studied the cluster phenomenon in Asia recently noted the actual and prospective advent
2 In nanotechnology, a specialty of a number of U.S. clusters, a number of U.S. firms that have originated promising new technologies have outsourced the manufacturing to Asia. In 2011, U.S.based Nova Centrix entered into an agreement with Japan’s Showa Denko pursuant to which the latter would manufacture and sell nanoparticle inks developed by Nova Centrix. An industry journal commented as follows: “Nova Centrix is one of several nanomaterials suppliers working with Japanese and other Asian partners to support production and commercialization of their technology. Experience of industrialized production methods can be leveraged as these technology developers try to commercialize their technologies, and much of the world’s display and electronics manufacturing occurs in Asia.” “Nanomaterials firms turn to Asia for Commercial Opportunities” Plastic Electronics (April 15, 2011).