are additional requirements specified in 10 CFR 20.1301 that must be met by the licensee to obtain authorization for a higher dose limit.
To show compliance with these dose limits, licensees are required to survey radiation levels in unrestricted and controlled areas, as well as in the effluents released in these areas. The licensee must demonstrate that the total effective dose equivalent to the individual likely to receive the highest dose from the plant does not exceed the annual dose limit noted above; this demonstration can be made either by measurement or calculation. Alternatively, the licensee can demonstrate that the annual average concentrations of radioactive material released in airborne and liquid effluents at the boundary of the unrestricted area do not exceed radionuclide-specific values provided in the regulations,3 and also that an individual continuously present in an unrestricted area would receive a dose not to exceed 0.002 rem (0.02 mSv) in an hour and 0.05 rem (0.5 mSv) in a year.
There are additional regulations on the control of effluent releases for nuclear power plants in 10 CFR 50. Part 50.34a (Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents) requires applicants for nuclear plant construction permits to estimate future releases for:
(i) The quantity of each of the principal radionuclides expected to be released annually to unrestricted areas in liquid effluents produced during normal reactor operations; and
(ii) The quantity of each of the principal radionuclides of the gases, halides, and particulates expected to be released annually to unrestricted areas in gaseous effluents produced during normal reactor operations.
Additionally, 10 CFR 50.36(a)(2) requires licensees to submit annual reports specifying the principal radionuclides released in liquid and gaseous effluents.
Part 50.36a (Technical specifications on effluents from nuclear power reactors) requires licensees to establish and follow procedures for the control of effluents. This Part also establishes an expectation that “the licensee will exert its best efforts to keep levels of radioactive material in effluents as low as is reasonably achievable.”4
The release requirements for radioactive effluents are based on the calculated doses to members of the public from the effluents, and not on the total volume or type of radioactive material discharged. Thus, licensees have the discretion to control effluent releases in a manner that allows for