from Routine Releases of Reactor Effluents for the Purpose of Evaluating Compliance with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I) (USNRC, 1977c). Guidance to calculate the annual doses to humans from effluent releases from nuclear plants is also included in Regulatory Guide 1.109.
Regulatory Guide 4.16 (Monitoring and Reporting Radioactive Materials in Liquid and Gaseous Effluents from Nuclear Fuel-Cycle Facilities) indicates that estimates of exposures resulting from effluent releases from nuclear fuel-cycle facilities also should be calculated consistent with the applicable guidance in Regulatory Guide 1.109. Alternatively, nuclear facility licensees can use Guide 4.20 (Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Material to the Environment for Licensees Other than Power Reactors) for estimating exposures from airborne releases. Of course, the nuclides of interest for exposures from nuclear fuel-cycle facilities differ from those for nuclear plants (see Chapter 2). The use of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved codes (e.g., COMPLY) is accepted by the USNRC and these codes are generally used by fuel-cycle facilities to demonstrate compliance with exposure limits. These codes are generally conservative and overestimate exposures. Since external exposures from fuel-cycle facilities are essentially negligible compared to internal exposures, current models available in the literature are entirely sufficient. Similarly, current models are also sufficient for direct radiation exposure from stored waste, tailings piles, and depleted-uranium canisters.
G.1 EFFLUENT MONITORING AT NUCLEAR PLANTS
Regulatory Guide 1.21 (Measuring, Evaluating, and Reporting Radioactive Material in Liquid and Gaseous Effluents and Solid Waste) provides regulatory guidance for sampling and analysis of effluents from USNRC-licensed nuclear plants. Guidance to plant licensees on sampling and analysis methods and frequencies are provided in NUREG-1301 for Pressurized Water Reactors and NUREG-1302 for Boiling Water Reactors. These documents contain guidance on:
Site-specific monitoring programs can deviate from the guidance in these NUREGs with appropriate justifications and approvals.