76” fuel-cycle facilities. These are the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants. Because the plants are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy,2 they are subject to the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants), Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities) and Subpart Q (National Emission Standard for Radon Emissions from Department of Energy Facilities).

G.2.1 Milling Facilities

Guidance specifically for milling facility effluent monitoring is provided in Regulatory Guide 4.14. This guide recommends that a program of soil, water, air, vegetation, food, and fish sampling and direct radiation monitoring be initiated at least 12 months prior to the construction of the milling facility. The guide also recommends that an operational monitoring program be conducted during construction and after the commencement of milling operations. The recommended operational monitoring program includes the following elements:

  • Sampling and analysis for natural uranium, thorium-230, radium-226, and lead-210 particulates from facility stacks.
  • Sampling and analysis for natural uranium, thorium-230, radium-226, and lead-210 particulates in air from three locations at or near the site boundaries in sectors that are expected to have the highest concentrations of airborne particulates; from one or more locations at the closest residence(s) or occupy-able structure(s); and from one control location.
  • Sampling and analysis for radon gas at five or more locations that were used for air particulate sampling.
  • Measurement of direct radiation at five or more locations that were used for air particulate sampling.

G.2.2 Other Fuel-Cycle Facilities

Guidance for monitoring programs at other front-end facilities (e.g., conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication) is provided in Regulatory Guide 4.16. This guide recommends that licensees:

  • Establish a sampling program that is sufficient to determine quantities

2 These U.S. government-owned plants are leased to USEC, a private corporation.



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