James C. McWilliams is Louis B. Slichter Professor of Earth Sciences in the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles. He also is a senior research scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. His research interests are in theory and computational modeling of Earth’s ocean and atmosphere. In addition to his work in fluid dynamics, he developed a three-dimensional simulation model of the U.S. west coast that incorporates physical oceanographic, biogeochemical, and sediment transport aspects of the coastal circulation and is being used to interpret coastal phenomena, diagnose historical variability in relation to observational data, and assess future possibilities. Dr. McWilliams has served on many NRC climate committees, including the Committee on Science of Climate Change. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received a B.S. in applied mathematics from Caltech and an M.S. and Ph.D. from Harvard.

Philip W. Mote is a professor in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. He also is the director of the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute for the Oregon University System. Before joining Oregon State University, he was a research scientist at the University of Washington and the state climatologist for Washington. Dr. Mote’s research interests include climate variability and change in the Pacific Northwest; regional climate modeling; mountain snowpack and its response to climate variability and change; sea-level rise; impacts of climate change on water resources, forests, and shore-lands; and adaptation to climate change. Among his publications in these areas is an analysis of sea-level rise in the coastal waters of Washington state. Dr. Mote has served on several committees associated with climate change and sea-level rise, including the NRC Panel on Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change and the IPCC. He received a B.A. in physics from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Washington.

William Tad Pfeffer is a professor of civil, environmental, and architectural engineering at the University of Colorado. He also is a fellow of the university’s Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. Dr. Pfeffer’s research interests are in modern glacier physics, including ice mechanics and glacier dynamics, heat and mass transfer in snow and ice, atmosphere/glacier and ocean/glacier interactions, and the application of the results to estimates of future sea-level change. He is a member of the executive committee of the American Geophysical Union’s Cryospheric Sciences Focus Group. He received a B.A. in geology from the University of Vermont, an M.A. in geology from the University of Maine, and a Ph.D. in geophysics from the University of Washington.

Denise Reed is a professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of New Orleans. Her research interests include coastal marsh response to sea-level rise and how this is affected by human activities. She has worked on coastal issues on the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts of the United States, as well as other parts of the world, and also is involved in ecosystem restoration planning both in Louisiana and in California. Dr. Reed has served on numerous boards and panels concerning coastal environments and ecosystem restoration, including NRC committees on water and environmental management in the California Bay Delta and on mitigating shore erosion, the Corps of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board, the NOAA Science Advisory Board’s Ecosystems Sciences and Management Working Group, the National Science Panel for South Bay Salt Ponds Restoration, and the Strategic Science Review Panel for the Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Restoration Program. She received her B.A. and Ph.D. in geography from the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

C.K. Shum is a professor and Distinguished University Scholar in the Division of Geodetic Science, School of Earth Sciences, at the Ohio State University. His research focuses on the accurate measurement of present-day sea-level rise and the improved understanding of the geophysical causes of this rise. He also works on satellite geodesy, temporal gravity field and tide modeling, satellite oceanography, hydrology and geodynamics, ice mass balance, precision satellite orbit determination, GPS meteorology, and space physics. Dr. Shum was a lead author of the chapter on observations of oceanic climate change and sea level in



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