FIGURE 1.13 Tidal wetlands along the mouth of the Nisqually River, Washington, are being restored following removal of a dike built a century ago to drain the area for cattle ranching. SOURCE: Courtesy of Carl Safina; photo taken for the PBS television series Saving the Ocean.

coast, including regional changes in ocean circulation, climate-induced changes in storms, gravitational and deformational effects of land ice change, and vertical land motions. It also summarizes the results of the committee’s analysis of tide gage and GPS records from the California, Oregon, and Washington coasts, which is discussed in detail in Appendix A. Sea-level data from the northeast Pacific Ocean is presented in Appendix B. Data and uncertainties associated with the analysis of gravitational and deformational effects of land ice change are given in Appendix C. The tide gage and vertical land motion analyses draw on leveling data, and a description of leveling data compiled and analyzed for California by James Foster, University of Hawaii, appears in Appendix D. Chapter 5 summarizes recent projections of global and regional sea-level rise and presents the committee’s projections for 2030, 2050, and 2100. The method used to project the cryospheric component of global sea-level rise is described in Appendix E. Chapter 5 also describes what rare, extreme events, such as a great earthquake along the Cascadia Subduction Zone, might mean for local sea-level rise. Chapter 6 summarizes the literature on natural shoreline responses to and protection from sea-level change. Biographical sketches of committee members are given in Appendix F, and a list of acronyms and abbreviations appears in Appendix G.

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