Click for next page ( 350


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 349
Index A Abuse, see Child abuse and neglect Access to child care adequacy of, xii, 229-235, 297 for children with disabilities, 234 235 constraints on women's employment, 35, 36, 238 for economically disadvantaged children, 23~234 and fertility, 37 hours of service and, 234 improving, 299 for infants and toddlers, 229-231 for parents in education and job training programs, 13, 34 35 policy goals, xiii, 29~299 for preschool-age children, 36, 231-232 for school-age children, 232 supply of services, 229 . . . ... variation In, x~ Act for Better Child Care, 256 Activities, see Curriculum/daily activities Acute distress syndromes, 48 Adaptive Language Inventory, 67 Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, xi, 170 Adolescents, marriages, 22 After-school care, see Before- and after-school care AIDS, 111, 114 Aid to Families with Dependent Children 349 child care preferences of recipients, 34 child care subsidies tied to, 249 costs of, 196, 205, 212-213 and demand for child care, 213, 234 participation in work programs, 6, 36, 206, 213 purpose of, 205, 212-213 Ainsworth strange-situation assessment, 5~56, 61, 117 Alerta program, 122 Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, 164 AT&l 164, 201 Attachments and age of entry in child care, 57-58, 65, 77, 117 anxious-avoidant, 55, 57, 60, 61, 117 to caregiver, 49, 75, 77, 88, 92, 117, 118, 121, 127 caregiver involvement with children and, 67-68 construct definition and assessment, 5~57 to mother, 6, 49, 50, 57-58, 65, 75, 92, 117-118, 127 mother's social support and, 58 multiple simultaneous, 49, 50, 77 and quality of child care, 5~59 and peer relationships, 120 research needs on, 61 security of, and day-care participation, 56, 57-59, 75, 117-118

OCR for page 349
350 and social development, 55, 75, 120, 121 stress and parenting during first year, 59-61 B Baby-boom generation, 21, 230 Babysitters, in-home, 150, 229, 236 Bank of America, 174, 188 Before- and after-school care availability of, 131, 171, 232, 297, 298 in centers, 171-172 in family day care, 172 fees for, 172 model programs, 133 in public schools, 21~219 research needs on, 134 and social development, 133-134 state funding for, 171 transport to child care centers, 133 and vender-voucher programs, 176 Behavior of children affect, 70, 74 aggression, 63, 65, 70, 117, 125-126 conduct disorders, 48 cooperativeness, 68, 89, 117, 119, 121, 127, 134 distractability and considerateness in kindergarten, 70 group size and, 87 peer group stability and, 120 quality of child care and, 70, 87, 121, 127 social skills training and, 119, 127, 134 staff/child ratios and, 88 89 see also Mother-child relationship Bilingual/Multicultural Curriculum Development Effort, 122 Blacks positive group identity of, 121-122 see also Race/ethnicity Boys Clubs of America, 171 C Campfire, Inc., 171 Care by relatives costs of, 236 research needs on, 282 trends, 3, 28, 30 32, 34, 149, 229 and women's employment, 36, 149 INDEX Caregivers attachment of infants and toddlers to, 49, 75, 77, 88, 118 autonomy as a dimension of quality of care, 98 in center care, 15~159 interaction with children, 77, 84, 85-86, 89, 90, 95, 96, 118, 123-124, 127, 134, 327-328 isolation from supportive contacts, 96 multiple, 33, 48, 91-92 parental relationship with, 153 physical environment and behavior of, 94 salaries, wages, and benefits, 158, 159, 16~161, 17~182, 221, 239-240, 241 stability and continuity of, 33, 48, 91-92, 94, 102, 103, 118, 179-180, 239, 241 standards for, 327-332 state regulation of, 94, 31~319, 322-323 subsidies for, 21~221 tax incentives for, 219-221 see also Care by relatives; Qualifications of caregivers; Training of caregivers Center care age grouping of children, 157 availability and affordability, 34, 229, 231 caregiver stability and continuity in, 91-92, 15~159 clientele, 161 effects of school-based preschool programs on, 167 employer-provided, 163-164 fees for, 162, 164, 236 for-profit and not-for-profit, 159-163, 167, 171, 181 group size in, 87, 88 operating costs of, 161-162 program characteristics, 156, 157 quality of, and cognitive development in children, 6~67, 84 quality of, and social development in children, 69-70, 119 racial/ethnic mix in, 157 research on, 51, 64 salaries of workers, 181 space and facilities, 93-94 staff/child ratios, 65, 161 state regulations for, 157, 32~323 supply of, 156-157 trends in use of, 31-33, 229, 230 Centers for Disease Control, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, 111

OCR for page 349
INDEX Chemical Bank, dependent care assistance program, 205 Child abuse and neglect, 11~114, 115, 182, 186, 31~319, 32~323 Child allowances, 244-249 Childbearing rates, 22 unmarried, 23; see also Single parenthood see also Fertility Child care eliects of, 45-77; see also Child development; Maternal deprivation federal centers, 163 for low-income families, see Subsidies research, see Research on child care roots of, 8 societal change and, ~14 social policy issues in, ~9 trends, xi, 3-4, 16, 2~34, 147-148 workers, see Caregivers see also Infant care; Quality of child care Child care expenditures by families, 34, 194, 195, 235-238 federal, 194, 195-198, 206; see also Subsidies private-sector, 199-201 state and local, 19~199 see also Subsidies Child Care Food Program, 154, 155, 173, 174, 179, 184, 196, 197, 214, 215-216, 221, 254 Child care policies benefits and costs of alternatives, 9, 242-260 consumer subsidies, 244-254 debate context, 4, 5-9, 28~290 diversity of care arrangements and development of, 7 - federal, 7, 195-198 goals, xiii-xiv, 7, 11, 12-13, 242~244, 29~302 infrastructure subsidies, 245, 247, 257-260 liability insurance considerations, 187 in other countries, 9-11 paid child care, 249-251 parental leave, xvii, 251-254 . . . .. prIOIltleS, X11 private-sector, 7, 199-201 351 provider disagreement and division and, 8 provider subsidies, 247, 250260 research needs on, 284 287 services to children in low-income families, 255-257 state and local, 19~199 tradeoffs in, 13 types to consider, 243 universal child care, 25~255 Child care services and programs access to and availability of, see Access to child care adequacy of, xii affordability of, xii, xiii, 34, 13, 35, 235-239, 299-302 building and zoning restrictions on, 184 186 coordination and planning, xv, 187-189, 221-223, 309 310 determinants of parental choices of, 33 diversity of, 7~, 9, 47, 65, 147, 187 employer-provided, 16~164 findings and conclusions on, 29~291 for-profit and not-for-profit centers, 159-162, 234 improving access to, 299 increase in, 31 infrastructure, strengthing of, xv, 221-223, 307-310 liability insurance, 18~187 multiple forms by multiple caregivers, 33, 48, 91-92 nannies and in-home babysitters, 150 parental satisfaction with, 33 projected need for, 39 regulation of, 147-148, 182-184 by relatives, 149-150; see also Care by relatives school-based programs, 164-167 staffing, 17~182 see also Caregivers; Center care; Delivery of child care services; Family day care; Infant care Child Care Staffing Study, 158, 160, 178, 180 Child development caregiver interactions and, 84 caregiver stability and continuity and, 91-92

OCR for page 349
352 links between home and child care environments and, 47, 73-76 maternal deprivation and, 48-50 measures of status of, 74 negative characteristics of child care for, 50 processes, 45-46 quality of child care and, xii, 65-71, 77 self-care and, 131-134 socioeconomic status and, 74 see also Cognitive development; Physical health of children; Psychological development of children; Social development of children Child Development Associate program, 158, 180, 181, 196, 221 Children, see Children with disabilities; School-age children; Sick children Children's Defense Fund, 172 Children's World Learning Centers, 159, 160, 171-172, 177 Children with disabilities availability of child care for, xii, xv, 230235, 297, 298 in child care, 127-128 costs of care for, 237 development of, 12~131 incidence of, 127 individualized service plan, 218 mainstreaming and integrating, 12~129 programs for, xv, 12~129, 170, 298 social development of, 13~131, 135 subsidies for services for, 214, 217-218 teacher training for, 129, 130, 135 Child Welfare League of America, day care standards, 85 nit, 99, 100, 324, 326, 327, 33~331, 333, 334, 33~339 Classroom Behavior Inventory, 68 Cognitive development age of entry in child care and, 69-70 caregiver interaction with children and, 124 caregiver qualifications and, 90 curricula and, 93, 124, 127 in day care children, 51-52, 64, 68 deficits in, 48 early intervention programs and, 53 home rearing vs child care, 51-54 measures of, 67, 124 quality of child care and, 4, 6~67, 87, 124 INDEX research needs on, 125 social class and, 52, 64 social development and, 125-126, 127, 134, 333-334 structural features of day-care environment and, 84, 92-93 see also Language development Community Coordinated Child Care program, 221-222 Compensatory preschool programs benefits to economically disadvantaged children, 233 Chapter I, 170, 217, 233 recommended expansion of, xiv-xv, 305-307 see also Early childhood education; Head Start Comprehensive Child Development Act of 1972, 7 Congressional Budget Office, 213, 215 Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, 158 Cultural identification and academic competence, 98, 121 awareness in child care programs, 336 337 curricula, 122, 127, 330337 multicultural perspectives in child care programs and, 63, 97-98 parental participation in, 123, 127 professional standards for affirmation of, 100, 328, 33~337 and psychological stress, 122 Current Population Surveys, 35, 149, 211, 230 Curriculum/daily activities and cognitive development, 93, 94, 124, 127 cultural identification in, 118, 122, 127 early childhood education content and structure, 333-335 in extended day care for school-age children, 172 and language development, 92 in preschool, 93, 94 quality of child care and, 9493, 100, 102, 134 regulation of, 103 and social development, 93 standards for, 333-337 Cytomegalovirus, 112, 115

OCR for page 349
INDEX D Daily activities, see Curriculum/daily activities Data collection large-scale surveys, 271-274 national and state reporting systems, 274-276 recommendations, 27~276 special surveys, 276 Daybridge Learning Centers, 159 Day care and intellectual development in children, 51-52 see also Child care listings; Extended day care; Family day care Delivery of child care services barriers to, 17~189 building and zoning restrictions and, 184 186 coordination and planning and, 187-189 liability insurance and, 186 187 provider networks, 174-175 regulations and, 182-184 resource and referral services, 173-174 staffing problems, 17~182 vendor-voucher programs, 17~178 Diarrheal disease, 110,114,115 Disabilities, see Children with disabilities Disability programs claims, 210 and maternity leave, 207-210 Discipline positive techniques, 130 regulation in child care facilities, 85, 31~319, 32~323 Divorce rates, 22; see also Family structure E Early childhood education caregiver qualifications and roles, 327-332 for children with disabilities, 128 and cognitive development, 53, 125 cultural awareness in, 122, 33~337 curriculum content and structure, 33~335 effectiveness of, 52-53,125, 127 evaluation of, 52, 74-75 focus of, 8, 10 group sizes, 333 353 parental participation in, 328-329 physical environment, 337-338 professional standards for programs, 32~339 and relationships with peers and adults, 61-62 and school-related behavior, 53 in school settings, 166 and social development, 120 staQ/child ratios, 333 see also Head Start; Preschool programs Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, 65 66, 74, 85 nit, 97-98, 99, 324, 325, 327, 332, 333, 335-339 Economic Recovery Act of 1981, 202 Education of caregivem, xvi; see also Qualifications of caregivers; Training of caregivers and labor force participation, 18 of low-inoome parents, 206 mother's, and child care arrangements, 33 vocational, 206 Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 170 Education for the Handicapped Act, 127, 128, 217, 218, 234, 235 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 170, 217 Employers child care provided by, 16~164, 19~200 dependent care assistance plans, 201, 202-204 flexible spending accounts, 20~204 parental leave policies of, xvii voucher programs, 177, 20~205 Employment support programs related to, 6, 201-206 see also Labor force participation by mothers; Unemployment; Women's employment Expenditures, see Child care expenditures Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 67 Extended day care with Head Start program, xv school facilities for, 171 F Facilities for child care

OCR for page 349
354 building and zoning restrictions, 180186 center size, 97 Head Start, 168 public schools, 171 and quality of care, 9~94, 97 recommended, xvi, 294 Families economic well-being of, 23-25; See also Low-income families; Poverty federal involvement in, 7 linkages between child care environments and, 72-76 research needs on, 279-280 social and psychological characteristics, 72-73, 279-280 Family day care accreditation of homes, 101 after-school care in, 172 age mix in, 95, 96, 151, 153, 157 availability of care in, 229, 231 caregiver characteristics, 89-90, 91-92, 152-153 and cognitive development, 67 costs, 15~155, 236 diversity of services in, 152 group size in, 87-88, 153 income of providers, 179 infant and toddler care in, 152, 229-230 licensed providers, 152, 154, 179, 230 networks, 173, 17~175 preschooler care in, 231 prevalence of care in, 151, 229-230 qualification of providers, 18~181 quality dimensions unique to, 95-96, 100 101 quality of care in, 95-97, 156 racial/ethnic mix in, 153 recommendations for, xv, 309 registration of, 154, 156, 183-184 regulation of, 151, 153-154, 182 research needs on, 51, 64, 282 school-age children in, 152, 232 space and facilities, 93-94 staff/child ratios in, 88 state regulations on, 103, 316-319 trends in use of, 32, 34, 229 Family Day Care Food Program, 175 Family income and economic well-being of families, 2025 family structure and, 2~27, 37 INDEX labor force participation by mothers and, 22, 26, 35, 36 proportion spent on child care, 237-238 racial/ethnic differences in, 24-25 trends, 16, 24-28 wives' contribution to, 25-26 Family structure ages of children and, 22-23 and child care arrangements, 3036, 236 and family income, 24-27, 37 labor force participation by mothers and, 1~20, 22, 23, 35 projected, 37-39 trends, 16, 22-23 see also Single parenthood Family Support Act of 1988, 6, 213, 232, 233, 250 Fathers, child care by, 28, 3~32, 149 Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements, 85 n.1, 99-100, 148, 183, 326, 334, 337 Fertility child care and, 5, 3~37 labor force participation and, 18, 36-37 parental leave and, 11 women's employment and, 3, 36-37 Flexible spending accounts, 203-204 Food Stamp disregard, 196 Ford Foundation, xi For-profit child care, 159-162, 199, 234 Foundation for Child Development, xi G Grant programs, xiv; see also Social Services Block Grant program Group size and behavior of teachers and children, 87, 119 and child development, 67, 75, 87, 91 and cognitive development, 124 defined, 86 n.2 in family day care, 87 88, 153 and infectious disease transmission, 110, 116 and language development, 124 professional standards for, 101 recommended, xvi, 294 regulation of, 88, 103, 316-317, 320-321 research findings on, 87~8 research needs on, 86 and social competence, 121

OCR for page 349
INDEX standards for early childhood programs, 100, 333 H Handicapped children, see Children with disabilities Head Start competition of programs with, 165 components of, 167 costs of, 196, 197, 237, 240 cultural sensitivity in, 98, 328 effectiveness of, ~7, 53, 125, 169, 233 eligibility for, 53-54, 168, 169, 255 facilities, 168 funding basis, 216 handicapped children in, 170, 235, 237 immunizations, 233 isolation from other programs, 169-170 licensing of, 168, 180 location of, 169 parental involvement in, 75-76, 97, 168, 216, 233 performance standards, 85 n.1, 98, 99, 169, 326, 328, 332 policy alternatives for, 254, 255-257 population served by, 216, 233 purpose of, 8, 167, 214, 216, 233 recommended expansion of, xiv-xv, 305-307 research needs on, 54 staff, 168, 179, 18.0, 216-217, 221, 332, 334, 335, 337-339 state funding of, 169, 216-217, 221 studies of, 53-54 see also Compensatory preschool programs High/Scope Preschool Study, 93, 126 Hispanics, see Race/ethnicity Human immunodeficiency virus, 111, 114 Human Services Reauthorization Act, 219, 221, 222 I IBM, 173-174 Income, see Family income Income support Aid to Families with [Dependent Children, 212-213 earned income tax credit, 212 as infant care alternative, 11 355 in other countries, 11 personal tax exemptions, 211-212, 246 Infant care availability of, xii, 1~11, 229-231, 297-298 in child care centers, 230 costs of, 162, 297 in family day care homes, 230 and mother-child relationship, 61, 65, 77, 117; see also Attachments in other countries, 1~11 parental leave alternatives to, xvii, 11 qualifications of caregivem, 90, 297 quality and cost concerns, 1~11 research needs on effects of, 281-282 staff/child ratios, xvi, 88, 89, 91, 297 Infants and toddlem anxious-avoidant, 55-57, 60, 61 attachment to caregivers, 88, 92 caregiver interaction with, 67~8 defined, 46 n.1 with disabilities, 128, 234, 235; see also Children with disabilities non-toilet-trained, 110 peer relationships, 120 respiratory tract infections in, 109 stress and parenting during first year, 59-61 with working mothers, 17-21, 31, 230 Infectious diseases cytomegalovirus, 112, 115 diarrhea! disease, 110, 114, 115 HIV infection, 111, 114 meningitis, 11~111, 114, 115, 116, 134 in non-toilet-trained children, 110, 111 prevention of, 110, 114, 31~319, 322-323 respiratory tract infections, 109, 114, 115, 134 viral hepatitis, 111-112, 114, 115, 116 Injury, see Physical health of children Institutionalization of children, 48, 50 Intellectual development, see Cognitive development Internal Revenue Service, day care centers, 163 J Job opportunity and basic skills program, 213 Job Raining Partnership Act, 206, 249

OCR for page 349
356 K Kamehameha Early Education Program, 122 Kinder Care, 159, 171,172, 177 Kindergartens state programs, 164 165 trends in use of, 32 L Labor force participation by mothers and ages of children, 17-21, 31 and child care trends, 28 29, 34, 194, 236 and child development, 47; see also Maternal deprivation economic status and, 20, 25, 233 education and, 35 and family income, 22, 35 family structure and, 18, 19, 22, 23, 35, 36 and family values debate, 5-6, 10 fertility and, 18, 3~37 and home production activities, 35 and infant-child relationship, 59 marital status and, 1~21, 35 part-time, 60 projected, 3, 37-39 race differences, 1~20, 27 social trends leading to, 6, 21-22 trends, xi, 3, ~10, 16, 17-22 work schedule and availability of child care, 28 see also Women's employment Language development age mix and, 124 assessment of skills, 67 caregiver interactions with children and, 123-124, 127, 134 in children with disabilities, 129 ear infections and, 109, 115 predictors of, 67, 73, 84, 88 processes, 116, 123-124 quality of family day care and, 96 social development and, 49 staff/child ratios and, 88 structure and content of daily activities and, 92 LaPetite Academy, 177 Latchkey children, see School-age children; Self-care INDEX Liability insurance, as a barrier to child care, 186 187 Low-income families affordability of child care for, 6, 13, 34 availability of child care for, 34, 233-234, 235, 297, 298 child care preferences of, 34 child development programs for, 6-7 compensatory education programs for children of, 127, 233; see also Head Start handicapped children in, 235 job training and employment for, 6, 13, 206 labor force participation by mothers, 1020 services for children in, 255-257 special needs of, xii, xiv, 300301 subsidies for child care, xiv, 176, 204 205, 303-305; see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children tax credits for, 24~249 vocational education programs, 206 see also Poverty M Marital status and child care arrangements, 30, 36 and family income, 26 and labor force participation by women. 1~21 Maternal deprivation, 4~50, 51, 77 Mellon Bank, dependent care assistance program, 205 Meningitis, 11~111, 114, 115, 116, 134 Mother-child relationship age of entry in child care and, 57-58, 117 depression in mother and, 57 quality of child care and, 73-74 transient distress of children in child care, 57 validity of laboratory assessment of, 118 see also Attachments N Nannies, 150 National Association for the Education of Young Children

OCR for page 349
INDEX accreditation cnteria, 85~6, 97, 99, 100, 186, 187, 299, 324, 325, 327-329, 331, 333, 335-339 Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, 158 survey of center care, 157 National Association for Family Day Care, 101 National Association of Elementary School Principals, 171 National Black Child Development Institute, safeguards, 85 nit, 99, 100, 324, 325, 328, 330, 331-332, 334, 336, 338 National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, 113 National Council of Churches, 171 National Day Care Home Study, 89-9\0, 95, 97, 151, 153, 174, 179, 184 National Day Care Study center care characteristics, 15~157, 160 policy variables on structural dimensions of quality, 86-87 qualifications of caregivem, 89-90, 158 quality of care and cognitive development, 67, 75 staff/child ratios, 88 structure and content of daily activities, 93 National Head Start Multicultural Task Force, 98, 122 National Institute of Mental Health, 113 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 36, 149, 236, 273-274 National Survey of Family Growth, 149, 151, 159 Northside Child Development Center in Minneapolis, 164 Nursery school availability of places in, 231 negative effects on children, 48 trends in use of, 32, 156 p Parental leave availability of, 200, 20~211 and birth rates, 11 evaluation of policies, 60 61 infant care leave, 200, 208-210 length of, 10 357 maternity leave, 10, 207-208, 209 in other countries, 10-11 paternity leave, 10, 208, 209 policy alternatives, 247, 251-254 rationales for, 11 recommended, xvii, 311-313 stress reduction in mothers, 60 utilization of, 209, 210 wage replacement for, 10, 210 Parenting, stress during first year of, 59~1 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 67 Peer relationships attachments and, 120 early childhood education and, 61~2 group size and, xvi peer group stability and, 120 psychological development of children and, 48, 55, 119-121 social development and, xvi, 48, 61~2, 64, 65, 70, 134 among toddlers, 120 see also Behavior of children Pell Grant Program, 206 Perry Preschool, 93, 255 Physical health of children abuse and neglect, 113-114 age mix and, 110, 112, 116 exclusion policy for sick children, 111, 114-115, 116 implications for practice, 115-116 injury, 113, 115 protective measures, 116, 31~319 quality of child care and, 4 regulation of, 182 research needs on, 109, 113, 115, 283 risk to, 134 staffIchild ratios and, 88 state regulations to protect, 31~319, 32~323 studies on, 109 see also Infectious diseases Physical space developmental effects of design of, 93-94 professional standards for, 102, 337-338 recommended, xvi, 294 regulation of, 85, 9095, 31~317, 320-321 see also Facilities for child care Polaroid, voucher program, 205 Policies, see Child care policies Poverty

OCR for page 349
358 children living in, 233 family structure and, 24, 27 race/ethnicity and, 27 see also Low-income families Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, 207 Preschool-age children arrangements for care of, 28 31, 33 availability of child care for, 231-232 caregiver interaction with, 67~8 classroom behavior, 62, 65, 68 defined, 46 n.1 depression in mother and problems in, 57 with disabilities, 128 family structure of, 22 labor force participation lay mothers of, 18-21 Preschool Inventory, 67 Preschool Language Assessment Instrument, 67 Preschool programs access to, 36 curriculum and cognitive development, 93, 94 effectiveness of, xv, 53 enrollment trends, 31 expenditures for, 34 fees for, 162 Japanese, 126 locally funded prekindergarten, 165 Project Giant Step, 165 state-sponsored prekindergarten, 16~165 staff/child ratios, xvi, 65, 88~9 trends in use of, 32 see also Compensatory preschool programs; Early childhood education; and specific programs Proctor and Gamble, dependent care assistance program, 205 Professional standards for child care caregiver qualifications and roles, 327-332 curriculum content and structure, 333-337 early childhood programs, 95, 126, 324-339 and federal funding requirements, 99, 325-326 group sizes and ratios, 333 parental participation, 338-339 INDEX physical characteristics of programs, 337-338 structural aspects of child care quality, 95, 99-103 recommendations, xv-xvi, 310-311 see also Regulations; and specific organizations Project Giant Step, 165 Providers disagreement and division among, 8 networks, 17~175 see also Caregivers Psychological development of children balance of emphasis in, 125-126 cognitive development, 124-125 cultural identity, 121-122 implications for practice, 127 language development, 123 124 processes, 116 relationships with adults, 48, 50, 55, 117-119 relationships with peers, 48, 55, 119-121 staff/child ratios and, 88 Public School Early Childhood Study, 164, 165 Q Qualifications of caregivem age of child and, 89 in center care, 158, 322-323 child-related training, 87, 89, 102, 166 and cognitive development, 67 correlations among components of, 89 and costs of care, 161 defined, 86 n.2 and developmental outcomes, xvi, 89-90 education, 87, 89, 90, 102 experience in child care, 87, 90 in family day care, 180-181, 318-319 in Head Start programs, 168, 180 and interaction with children, 89-90 professional standards for, 100, 102 recommendations, xvi regulation of, 90, 183, 31~319, 322-323 research needs on, 90 and salaries, 179 in school-based programs, 165-166 and sexual abuse of children, 113 variation in, 65 Quality of child care adequacy of, 239, 240-241

OCR for page 349
INDEX caregiver stability and continuity, 91-92, 239 center size and, 97 and cognitive development, 4, 6~67, 68 cultural recognition and appreciation, 97 daily activities, 92-93, 100, 102 defining, 66, 71, 8~86 dimensions of, 277-279 in family day care, 95-97, 156 and family social and psychological characteristics, 71, 7~73, 77, 279-280 and family variables, 73-76 goals for, 29~296 importance of, 13, 131, 133, 135, 295 improving, 295-296 indicators of, 327-339 longitudinal correlates, 69-70 measurement approaches, 65~6, 67, 70-71, 84 methodological issues, 7~71 and monetary costs of care, ~5, 239-240, 241, 301-302 parental involvement and, 97 . ... pot .lCy goat .s, X111 profit status of provider and, 160 regulatable aspects, 293-294 regulatory status of day care groups and, 95-96, 182 research needs on, 97-99, 277-279 and sexual abuse of children, 113 simultaneous operation of dimensions of, 102-103 and social development, 4, 5~59, 67-69, 119, 121, 127 space and facilities, 93 94, 294 structural aspects of, 86 99, 101; see also Group size; Physical space; Qualifications of caregivers; Staff/child ratios unregulatable aspects, 294-295 variation in, xii see also Professional standards for child i care R Race/ethnicity and child care arrangements, 31-32 and child care rates, 155 and differential effects of child care, 64 and family income, 24-26 359 and family structure, 22-23 and labor force participation by mothers, 19-20, 27 Recommendations caregiver training and experience, xvi compensatory preschool programs, xiv-xv, 305-307 data collection, 271-276 federal subsidies for low-income families, xii, xiv, 303-305 group size, xv Head Start expansion, xiv-xv infrastructure investments, xv, 307-310 leave for employed parents, xvii, 311-313 physical space and facilities, xvi policy and program analyses, 284-287 staff-child ratios, xiv standard-setting for child care, xv-xvi, 31~311 Regulations adequacy of, 103 as barriem to child care, 18~184 building and zoning, 184-186 on caregiver qualifications, 90, 158, 183 center care, by state, 88, 157, 320-323 daily activities or curriculum, 103 family day care, 88, 103, 15~154, 182, 316-319 focus of, 85 group size, 88, 91, 103 infant care, 297 need for, 147-148 physical space, 94-95, 103 and quality of care, xvi, 85, 182 reevaluation needs, 103-104 staff/child ratios, 88, 89, 91, 103, 183, 297 state, xvi, 85, 10~104, 148, 315-323 variation in, 182 see also Professional standards for child care Relatives, see Care by relatives Reporting systems, 274-276 Research on child care age of children in, 51 alarm phase, 47 and anxious-avoidant attachments, 61 child development aspects, 51-71, 28~281 data collection for, 9, 53, 269-276 difficulties in, 9 evolution of, 47 48, 77

OCR for page 349
360 family and child-care-environment linkages, 72-76 family day care, 64, 282 group comparison strategy, 63-64 Head Start, 53-54 health-related, 283 home rearing vs child care, 51~5 of infants, 280 281 maternal deprivation roots, 48 50 methodological issues, 9, 47, 58, 63 64, 66, 7~71, 77, 149 multiple forms of care, 282 needs, 9, 12, 47, 54, 61, 71, 97-99, 276-284; see also Recommendations new strategies and issues, 283-284 policy and program analyses, 280287 professional guidelines on structural aspects, 99 101 purposes of, 12 quality of child care and child development, 65-71, 277-279 relatives as caregivers, 282 self-selection factors in, 58, 64, 95, 96 structural aspects of quality, 8~101 Resource and referral services funding of, 222 orientation and services, 17~174 parental characteristics associated with use of, 241-242. recommendations for, xv, 307-308 union negotiation of, 222 Respiratory tract infections, 109, 114, 115 S School-age children arrangements for care of, 28, 131-134, 151, 17~172 availability of care for, xii, 232, 298 defined, 46 n.1 with disabilities, 127, 235 family structure of, 22 labor force participation by mothers of, 18, 21 needs of, 131 quality of care and developmental outcomes, 131 with working mothers, 17 see also Self-care School-age intervention programs and cognitive development, 53 INDEX see also Compensatory preschool programs School-based child care programs costs of, 298 curriculum/activities, 172 expenditures for, 196, 219 implications for organized child care programs, 166-167 kindergarten, 164, 165 licensing requirements, 165 prekindergarten, 160165, 21~219 recommendations on, xiv, 298 staffing, 16~166 subsidization of, 21~219 see also Before- and after-school programs Self-care developmental implications, 131-134, 135 labor force participation by mothers and, 29-30 and loneliness, fear, and stress in children, 132 and substance use, 132 trends in, 32, 131, 170-171, 232 Sexual abuse, 113-114, 115, 186 Sick children availability of child care for, xii, 298 exclusion policy, 111, 11~115, 116 options for care of, 115 see also Infectious diseases; Physical health of children Single parenthood and AFDC support, 212 and child care arrangements, 31-32, 298 and economic status, 24-26 and expenditures on child care, 237 by fathers, 22 projected, 39 social and economic factors contributing to, 23-24 and women's employment, 37, 178 see also Family structure Social change and child care policy debates, 5-9 cross-national issues, 9-11 Social class, and cognitive development in day-care children, 52, 64 Social development of children age of entry in child care and, 6~70, 118 attachment, 51 61, 120

OCR for page 349
INDEX before- and after-school programs and, 133-134 caregiver interaction and, 67~8 and cognitive development, 125-126, 127, 333-334 with disabilities, 129, 13~131, 135 home rearing vs child care, 5~63 measures of, 62, 68 preschool curricula and, 93 quality of child care and, 4, 67-69 relationships with peers and adults, xvi, 48, 6102, 64, 65, 70, 134 social competence, 62-63, 64 65, 70, 75, 120, 121 see also Behavior of children; Psychological development of children Social Security Act of 1933, 212 Social Services Block Grant program, 161, 170, 196, 197, 204, 210215, 233, 234 Socioeconomic status and child development, 74 and quality of child care, 72~73, 74 see also Low-income families Staff/child ratios age of children and, 65, 87, 88, 89, 100, 101-102 and attachment to caregiver, 118 and costs of care, 161, 162, 239, 240 defined, 86 n.2 and fees for care, 162 professional standards for, 100, 101-102 quality of child care and, 87, 8~89, 229, 239, 293-294 recommendations, xvi, 293-294 regulation of, 89, 103, 183, 239, 297 standards for early childhood programs, 333 state regulations on, 85, 88, 316-317, 320-321 Standards for child care, see Professional standards for child care Stress cultural identity and, 122 family, and child care quality, 72-73, 77 in latchkey children, 132 and parenting, 59-61 in parents of handicapped children, 128 Subsidies child allowances, 244 249 361 for child care, 160, 161, 194, 249-251, 250255 for children with disabilities, 217-218 consumer, 159, 195-198, 201-213, 24~254, 300 employment-related, 201-206 expenditures for, 19~199 income support, 194, 211-213 infrastructure, 19~198, 221-223, 257-260 licensing of child care facilities and receipt of, 154, 155 parental leave, 207-211, 251-254 provider, 175, 19~198, 21~221, 250260; see also specific programs and quality of child care, 72 recommended, xiv, 303-305 services for children in low-income families, 255-257 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 29, 31, 149, 150, 236, 273 Surveys large-scale, 272-274 special, 276 see also specific surveys T lax incentives dependent care credits, xiv, 194, 196, 197, 201-202, 248, 249 distribution of costs of, 250 earned income credits, xiv, 212 personal exemptions, 211-212, 246-248 refundable child allowance, 247-249 for providers, 196, 219-221 Voluntary Employees Beneficiary Associations, 219 Training of caregivers CDA credential, 158 and child cooperativeness, 119 for children with disabilities, 129-131, 135, 218 defined, 86 n.2 and developmental outcomes, xvi, 87, 124, 158, 328 331 diversity of, 65 importance of, 91 ~ and interaction with children, 90 opportunities for, 331-332 professional standards for, 100, 328 332 ranges of, 89

OCR for page 349
362 recommendations for, xv, 294, 308 regulation of, 91,158 for school-based programs, 166 U Unemployment and economic status of children, 26 among women who are single parents, 20, 26 Uni one/unionization child care center negotiation, 163, 164, 199, 20~201 of child care worked, 181-182 infant care leave negotiation, 208, 209-210 programs for child care support, 219 resource and referral services, 222 Universal child care, 25~255 U.S. Department of Agriculture, food and nutrition programs, 233 V Vendor-voucher programs administration of, 173,177 after-school, 176 opposition to, 177-178 private, 177, 205 public, 176, 20~205 INDEX recommendations for, xv, 308 309 Viral hepatitis, 111-112, 114, 115, 116 Voluntary Employees Beneficiary Associations, 219 W Welfare income disregard, 196, 205 Women's employment child care and, 28, 33, 34 38,149 constraints on, 4, 34 35, 211 and family income, 26, 27-28 and family structure, 3 and fertility, 3037, 211 and role overload or conflict, 59 see also Labor force participation by mothers Work Incentive Program, 206 Work schedules, nontraditional and arrangements for, xii, 28, 30, 149 and child care availability, xii, 28, 30, 234, 237, 297, 298 Workfare, 6, 196, 206 World Health Organization Expert Committee on Mental Health, 48 y YMCAs, 171