Appendix A

Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

MG (ret.) Larry G. Lehowicz is the manager of the Experimentation, Test and Training Sector Group at Quantum Research International. Prior to that, he was the corporate vice president for business development, engineering, logistics, and strategic solutions at Science Applications International Corporation. Previously, he was vice president of Quantum Research International. He retired from the U.S. Army as a major general and commander of the U.S. Army Operational Test and Evaluation Command, an organization dedicated to ensuring that warfighting systems, information management systems, and other military equipment are prepared for combat use. Gen. Lehowicz served as deputy chief of staff for combat development at the Army Training and Doctrine Command, and he was assistant division commander of the Tenth Mountain Division. He has a B.S. in geology from Kent State University and an M.B.A. from Syracuse University. He is also a graduate of the U.S. Army War College. General Lehowicz was the chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Assessment of Test Infrastructure Requirements to Support Testing of Defense Directed Energy Systems. He served previously as the vice-chair of the Committee on Army Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology and was a member of the Committee on Alternative Technologies for Anti-Personnel Landmines.

Cameron R. Bass is director of the Injury Biomechanics Laboratory in the Biomedical Engineering Department at Duke University. He is a recognized expert in blast and ballistic injury risk modeling with over 15 years’ experience in biomechanics. This includes substantial experience developing biomechanical injury models of blast, ballistic, and blunt trauma. Following postdoctoral experience (on an NSF fellowship) developing injury biomechanics models for blunt impact at the University of Virginia, Dr. Bass established a military and high-rate biomechanics program at the University of Virginia Center for Applied Biomechanics, which he ran from 1995 to 2008. One initial focus of the program was cranial, thoracic and spinal injuries from behind-armor blunt trauma (BABT), which led to the development of a BABT head injury assessment methodology being used at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory to evaluate ballistic protective helmets and other biomechanically based injury risk functions. In recent years Dr. Bass’s program has focused on the assessment of brain and thoracic trauma from primary blast and high-rate blunt trauma. Dr. Bass has developed animal and human cadaver models for assessing blast injuries, including the first large animal model, which demonstrated diffuse injury to axons from short-duration blasts that



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PREPUBLICATION DRAFT—SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members MG (ret.) Larry G. Lehowicz is the manager of the Experimentation, Test and Training Sector Group at Quantum Research International. Prior to that, he was the corporate vice president for business development, engineering, logistics, and strategic solutions at Science Applications International Corporation. Previously, he was vice president of Quantum Research International. He retired from the U.S. Army as a major general and commander of the U.S. Army Operational Test and Evaluation Command, an organization dedicated to ensuring that warfighting systems, information management systems, and other military equipment are prepared for combat use. Gen. Lehowicz served as deputy chief of staff for combat development at the Army Training and Doctrine Command, and he was assistant division commander of the Tenth Mountain Division. He has a B.S. in geology from Kent State University and an M.B.A. from Syracuse University. He is also a graduate of the U.S. Army War College. General Lehowicz was the chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Assessment of Test Infrastructure Requirements to Support Testing of Defense Directed Energy Systems. He served previously as the vice-chair of the Committee on Army Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology and was a member of the Committee on Alternative Technologies for Anti-Personnel Landmines. Cameron R. Bass is director of the Injury Biomechanics Laboratory in the Biomedical Engineering Department at Duke University. He is a recognized expert in blast and ballistic injury risk modeling with over 15 years’ experience in biomechanics. This includes substantial experience developing biomechanical injury models of blast, ballistic, and blunt trauma. Following postdoctoral experience (on an NSF fellowship) developing injury biomechanics models for blunt impact at the University of Virginia, Dr. Bass established a military and high-rate biomechanics program at the University of Virginia Center for Applied Biomechanics, which he ran from 1995 to 2008. One initial focus of the program was cranial, thoracic and spinal injuries from behind-armor blunt trauma (BABT), which led to the development of a BABT head injury assessment methodology being used at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory to evaluate ballistic protective helmets and other biomechanically based injury risk functions. In recent years Dr. Bass’s program has focused on the assessment of brain and thoracic trauma from primary blast and high-rate blunt trauma. Dr. Bass has developed animal and human cadaver models for assessing blast injuries, including the first large animal model, which demonstrated diffuse injury to axons from short-duration blasts that -257-

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PREPUBLICATION DRAFT—SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION do not cause fatality from pulmonary trauma. Dr. Bass has over 50 peer-reviewed publications in the areas of blast and blunt injury biomechanics and tissue biomechanics. He was awarded a Ph.D. in 1994 from the University of Virginia. Thomas F. Budinger, NAE and IOM, is professor in the graduate division of the University of California, Berkeley; senior medical scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); and professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and San Francisco Medical Center. Dr. Budinger has authored numerous papers on specific research topics including biomedical electronics, aging and cardiovascular physiology, bioastronautics, image processing and reconstruction, nuclear magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, reconstruction tomography, and inverse problem mathematics. He is coauthor of the text Ethics of Emerging Technologies: Scientific Facts and Moral Challenges. He received the Gold Medal from the American Roentgen Ray Society in 2009 and the Hal Anger Memorial Lectureship from the Society of Nuclear Medicine in 2010. Dr. Budinger graduated magna cum laude in chemistry from Regis College and received an M.S. in physical oceanography from the University of Washington. He subsequently received an M.D. from the University of Colorado and a Ph.D. in medical physics from the University of California, Berkeley. Morton M. Denn is Albert Einstein Professor of Science and Engineering and director of the Levich Institute at the City College of New York. He is past professor and chair of chemical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, and head of materials chemistry at the LBNL. He served as editor of the Journal of Rheology and received the Bingham Medal from the Society of Rheology in 1986 and the Founders Award from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers in 2008. He was elected to the NAE in 1986. Dr. Denn received a B.S.E. from Princeton University and a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota, both in chemical engineering. His expertise is relevant to this study in polymer rheology, including process dynamics of materials. William G. Fahrenholtz is a professor of ceramic engineering at Missouri University of Science and Technology at Rolla. Before that, he was assistant professor of ceramic engineering and a research investigator in the Graduate Center for Materials Research, University of Missouri-Rolla. Dr. Fahrenholtz also worked as a research assistant professor of chemical engineering at the University of New Mexico, where he researched ceramic-metal reactions and composite formation by reactive hot pressing and reactive metal penetration, examined processing methodologies, characterized microstructures, studied reaction sequences, and evaluated mechanical properties. His current research interests include processing and characterization of ceramics, ultra-high-temperature ceramics, reaction-based processing of ceramics and ceramic-metal composites, cerium oxide coatings for corrosion protection of aluminum, and thermodynamics. Dr. Fahrenholtz received his B.S. and M.S. in ceramic -258-

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PREPUBLICATION DRAFT—SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of New Mexico. Ronald D. Fricker, Jr., is an associate professor at the Naval Postgraduate School. He’s current research is focused on the performance of various statistical methods for use in biosurveillance, particularly epidemiologic surveillance, and statistical process control methodologies more generally. His recent research includes developing new spatiotemporal algorithms for biosurveillance, useful for both early event detection and situational awareness, and methods for optimizing the performance of biosurveillance systems. His other recent research includes assessing the effects of individual augmentation deployment on naval personnel retention, researching federal support to state and local organizations for domestic terrorism preparedness, and investigating the use of pesticides by U.S. forces during the Gulf War. Dr. Fricker holds a Ph.D. and an M.S. in statistics from Yale University, an M.S. in operations research from The George Washington University, and a bachelor's degree from the U.S. Naval Academy. Upon graduation from the Academy, he served as a surface warfare officer in the U.S. Navy. He has published in Statistics in Medicine, the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Environmental and Ecological Statistics, the Journal of Quality Technology, Naval Research Logistics, Teaching Statistics, and CHANCE. Professor Fricker is on the editorial boards of Statistics, Politics and Policy and the International Journal of Quality Technology and Engineering. He has served as the chair of the section on Statistics in Defense and National Security (SDNS) of the American Statistical Association (ASA). Prior to the creation of SDNS, he was a member of the Committee on Statisticians in Defense and National Security, serving as both the chair and vice-chair. He has also served as membership chair for the Quality and Productivity Section and as publicity chair for its Section on the Physical and Engineering Sciences. Yogendra M. Gupta is currently a Regents professor in the Department of Physics and the Director of the Institute for Shock Physics at Washington State University. He has been studying condensed matter response to shock wave and high pressure loading since 1970, with particular emphasis on examination and understanding of microscopic processes, and has supervised the work of over 90 graduate students and research associates since joining the Washington State University in 1981. He received his B.Sc. (physics., math, and chemistry.) 1966 and an M.Sc. (physics) in 1968 from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India, and a Ph.D. (physics) in 1972 from Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. He is the author of over 250 publications, has made over 300 invited and contributed presentations; and holds two patents. These include the invited articles “Shock Waves” in the Encyclopedia of Physics (Van Nostrand Reinhold) and “Shock Waves in Condensed Materials” in the Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (McGraw-Hill). Dr. Gupta has been a member of the External Review Committee for the Physics Capability Review of the Atomic Weapons Establishment of the United Kingdom; the Technology Area -259-

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PREPUBLICATION DRAFT—SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION Review and Assessment Panel for Applied Research and Technology Development for the Department of Defense; the American Physical Society Panel on Public Affairs; and the University of California (UC) President’s Science and Technology Panel for Oversight of the UC-managed DOE national laboratories, at present he is a member of, the External Review Committee for the Pulsed Power Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, and is the chairman of the Subcritical Experiments Evaluation Committee, DOE/NNSA to name a few. Dennis K. Killinger is the Distinguished University Professor and professor of physics at the University of South Florida and is an expert in laser and optical remote sensing/lidar, applied laser spectroscopy, laser physics, and free space optical laser communication. He received a B.A. from the University of Iowa, an M.A. from De Pauw University, and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Michigan. He conducted research on radar analysis and microwave atmospheric propagation while employed as a research physicist at the Naval Avionics Facility and was on the research staff in quantum electronics at Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, conducting research in the development of new solid-state lasers and their application as spectroscopic LIDAR probes of the atmosphere. In 1987, he joined the Physics faculty at the University of South Florida and is director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric LIDAR and Laser Communication Studies and past technical director of the Technology Deployment Center, working on technology transfer for the university and regional industries. Dr. Killinger is a fellow of the Optical Society of America, a senior member of the IEEE, past associate editor of Applied Optics and Optics Letters, past member of the NAS/NRC Committee on Optical Science and Engineering, and has served as chairman of several international conferences on lasers and applied spectroscopy. He has published over 200 technical papers, reports, and conference papers, and five books or book chapters. Vladimir B. Markov is president of Advanced Systems & Technologies, Inc., and past vice president and director of applied optics at MetroLaser, Inc., in Irvine, California. He specializes in the research, design, and development of devices and systems in the areas of laser physics and real-time holography, multibeam interaction, and holographic sensors. Throughout his career, Dr. Markov’s activity has been strongly associated with development of the fundamental properties of three dimensional holograms, real-time holography, optical image processing, and holographic nondestructive testing. He was actively involved and participated in development of such areas as nonlinear optical holography, including optical wave front conjugation, lasers with controlled parameters, especially with phase conjugation mirrors, multibeam interaction, and holographic sensors. In the area of holographic interferometry, Dr. Markov developed the technique for studying the vibrational characteristics of large-scale pressurized plastic pipes, a method that for the first time allowed detecting, studying and developing the technology to arrest fast-running cracks propagating in this type of pipe. At the same time, using a more conventional approach, he -260-

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PREPUBLICATION DRAFT—SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION developed an opto-electronic holographic nondestructive system for defect detection in various items, including components used in the electronic industry and museum objects. Some of his recent activities include the development of a matrix (16 × 16 beams) laser Doppler velocimeter system capable in detection of defects in airframe components (for the U.S. Navy and the Air Force); a novel long-range active laser tracking system for space situation awareness; a miniature laser system for crack precursor detection; a multibeam laser vibrometer; and a novel method for wave function sensing. Dr. Markov has more than 100 papers published in refereed journals, two books, and patents. He is a fellow of SPIE, a member of OSA, and is on the editorial boards of Optics and Laser Technology (U.K.) and the Journal of Holography and Speckle. James D. McGuffin-Cawley is chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Case Western Reserve University. He received a B.S from Alfred University in 1978 and a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in 1984. After 2 years at what is now NASA Glenn Research Center, he began his academic career in the College of Engineering at Ohio State University, where he spent 6 years. Dr. McGuffin-Cawley returned to Case in 1991 as the Great Lakes Associate Professor of Ceramic Processing and became a full professor in 1996. He was named Arthur S. Holden Professor of Engineering in January 2007. Dr. McGuffin-Cawley's research has included work on mass transport and corrosion of ceramics, especially in aerospace applications. Most recently, he has concentrated on advanced processing strategies for producing components from ceramics. Russell N. Prather is an engineering analyst at Survice Engineering Company. He retired from the Army Research Laboratory, where his career focus was on personnel vulnerability, body armor research, and wound ballistics. He has extensive knowledge about wound ballistics, bioresponse to trauma, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics and statistics, electronics engineering, physics, anatomy, photography, and explosives. Mr. Prather’s experience includes planning and conducting experiments to study the effectiveness of protective materials; identifying damage caused by transient deformation of protective materials and developing counteractive measures; assessing the effectiveness of personnel protection devices in response to new threats; and evaluating the ability of new weapons systems and ammunition to incapacitate. Mr. Prather served on the Joint Interservice Body Armor Committee, 1969-1972; Personnel Armor System Working Group, 1971-1975; International Association of Chiefs of Police, 1978-1986; and Joint Working Group for Protective Eyewear, 1986-1992; he represented the Army Research Laboratory, Expert Group on Ballistic Test Methods, in support of NATO Working Group 5, 1994-2000. He was awarded a B.S. in engineering-physics from Loyola College in, Baltimore in 1968 and in 1981 was awarded a master’s degree in engineering administration from the George Washington University. -261-

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PREPUBLICATION DRAFT—SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION Sheldon M. Wiederhorn (NAE) is a senior fellow emeritus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and continues to carry out a research program on the mechanical properties of ceramic materials. His current interests are to use the atomic force microscope to investigate the atomistics of crack growth in glasses and ceramic materials with the objective of learning more about the crack growth process and its relation to the microstructure of glass. At the National Bureau of Standards, now NIST Dr. Wiederhorn carried out a program on the mechanical reliability of brittle materials. He was one of the first to apply fracture mechanics techniques to study the fracture of ceramic materials. A consequence of his research was the development of techniques to assure the structural reliability of brittle ceramic materials. Techniques pioneered by Dr. Wiederhorn and his colleagues are now used to assure the reliability of glass windows in airplanes, space vehicles, and related applications. Dr. Wiederhorn is best known for the experiments that he developed to characterize subcritical crack growth in glasses. The results of these studies illustrate the complexity of subcritical crack growth, which consisted of stress-enhanced chemical reactions between water and stressed bonds at the tips of small cracks in glass. A natural conclusion of his study was that the failure of glass was caused by the slow growth of cracks to a critical size, which determined the time-to-failure. Dr. Wiederhorn received a B.S. in chemical engineering from Columbia University in 1956 and a M.S. (1958) and Ph.D. (1960) in Chemical Engineering from the University of Illinois. He has received many awards for his research and leadership at the NIST. These include both a Silver (1969) and a Gold Medal (1982) from the Department of Commerce and the Samuel Wesley Stratton Award, (1977) from the National Bureau of Standards. He is also a fellow of the American Ceramic Society (1970) and has received a number of important awards for his research from that society, including the Jeppson Award (1994) for outstanding research on ceramic materials. He is now a distinguished lifetime member of the American Ceramic Society (1998). In 1991, Dr. Wiederhorn was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Alyson Gabbard Wilson is statistics research associate at the Institute for Defense Analyses. She is past associate professor in the Department of Statistics at Iowa State University and Scientist (Level 5) in the Statistical Sciences Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Wilson received a Ph.D. in statistics from Duke University, and a M.S. in statistics from Carnegie-Mellon University, and a B.A. in mathematical sciences from Rice University. She is a fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recognized expert in statistical reliability, Bayesian methods, and the application of statistics to problems in defense and national security. Prior to joining Iowa State in 2008, Dr. Wilson was a project leader and technical lead for Department of Defense programs in the Statistical Sciences Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (1999-2008). In this role, she developed and led a $3 million portfolio of work in the application of statistics to the reliability of conventional and nuclear weapons. Before she moved to Los -262-

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PREPUBLICATION DRAFT—SUBJECT TO EDITORIAL CORRECTION Alamos, Dr. Wilson was a senior statistician and operations research analyst with Cowboy Programming Resources (1995-1999), where she planned, executed, and analyzed U. S. Army air defense artillery operational evaluations. From 1990 to 1991, she was a mathematical statistician at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Wilson has served on numerous national panels, including the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Oversight Committee for the Workshop on Industrial Methods for the Effective Test and Development of Defense Systems (2008-2010), the Sandia National Laboratories’ Predictive Engineering Science Panel (2008-2013), the NAS Panel on Methodological Improvement to the Department of Homeland Security’s Biological Agent Risk Analysis (2006-2008), and the NAS Panel on the Operational Test Design and Evaluation of the Interim Armored Vehicle (2002-2003). She was on the organizing committee for the Department of Energy Office of Science Workshop on Mathematical Issues for Petascale Data Sets (2008), and an invited participant in the Chief of Naval Operations Distinguished Fellows Workshop on Critical Infrastructure Vulnerability (2008), the DOE/OS Workshop on Mathematical Research Challenges in Optimization of Complex Systems (2006), and the DOE Simulation and Modeling for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems Workshop (2006). In 2006, Dr. Wilson chaired the American Statistical Association President's Task Force on Statistics in Defense and National Security. -263-