Put in the simplest of terms, the United States must address these issues both to ensure that we can capitalize on the flow of international students and scholars and to provide our nation with the talent we need as we make progress on our goals listed under Recommendation 9 in increasing the participation of women and underrepresented minorities in key fields. First, we must ensure that visa, residency, and citizenship processes are as efficient as possible. Second, we must reform the temporary work authorization visa process (H-1B visas). Third, we must, as a priority, be more proactive, both by recruiting students, postdoctorates, and scholars and by following the practice of other nations such as Canada in encouraging the immigration of international students by attaching a Green Card to every doctorate in science and engineering.

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