an aging population; suggest approaches to improve the development and use of health information technology; and formulate policies that improve the use of resources in health care.

•  A sustainable, healthier environment:

  – Basic research in the environmental sciences helps us better understand our natural environment, how and why it is changing, and the policy options for maintaining and restoring environmental quality.

  – Social science research helps us understand how population change and economic development affect the environment, how societies adapt to environmental change, how people understand environmental risks, and ways to encourage the invention, adoption, and use of technologies that improve environmental conditions.

  – Advances in technology improve water and air quality, reduce pollution, facilitate environmental cleanup, and improve agricultural productivity and sustainability.

•  Energy security:

  – Basic and applied energy research leads to new or improved technologies that improve the efficiency of existing technologies or provide new alternatives that diversify or enhance our energy sources.

  – Social and behavioral research helps encourage and measure the adoption of new technologies, match technological design to societal needs, and facilitate more efficient energy consumption.

•  Improved standards of living:

  – Research in the physical and life sciences creates knowledge and ideas that can be developed into new products, and into processes that create companies, jobs, and economic growth and new solutions for health, agriculture, transportation, communication, and information technologies and infrastructure.

  – Social and behavioral research provides insight into how research impacts innovation, economic growth, and other aspects of societal well-being so that our policies help to facilitate these changes. The tools of social and behavioral science are instrumental in the design, marketing, and distribution of new products and services.

•  Education for our children and adults:

  – Research in cognitive sciences has provided new knowledge and insights into the way students learn, creating the potential for powerful changes in curricula, teaching, and learning in all fields, but especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

•  Enhanced security:

  – Scientific and engineering research lead to the development of technologies that improve public safety and emergency and public health preparedness, counter terrorism, and ensure homeland security, national defense, and cybersecurity.

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