gineering and technology, with City University of Hong Kong, 43rd, and Tsinghua University, 45th.

In science and engineering, the United States still leads other nations in the number of Ph.D.’s conferred each year, but at the present rate of growth, the number of doctorates in China will soon rival the United States in Ph.D. production (see Figure 4-2). Other countries, such as India, Japan, South Korea, and some European counties have also increased the number of Ph.D.’s they produce in these fields. The ramifications of this for U.S. institutions are that the best and brightest students may no longer come to the United States for study and may not stay here as much as in the past. U.S. institutions will need to draw more heavily on students coming through the U.S. educational system, with special attention to minority groups that are making up a larger proportion of the population.

To be sure, both the United States and others will benefit from increasing global investments in higher education and research as ideas and talent circulate globally. Indeed, the United States needs to consider actions that allow us to continue to benefit and appropriate from global sources of ideas and talent, such as changes in immigration law suggested in Recommendation 10. Meanwhile, just as the global rise in higher education and research is multidimensional, so the response to these global changes for the United States and its institutions should be considered, nuanced, and varied. One key response must continue to be the increasing globalization of networks among researchers, which enhances research and its outcomes for everyone. Institutions should continue to explore the establishment of overseas campuses and research centers either as stand-alone entities or in partnership with local institutions. Yet a third response must also be to ensure that our national investments in research and doctoral education are responsive to both national needs and the realities of an increasingly competitive world. Our research universities are the best in the world. But a leadership position is easy to lose and difficult to regain.7


7 For more discussion on issues in the globalization of higher education and research universities, see the series of reports that have emerged from the Glion Colloquium at (accessed December 19, 2011).

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