transfer, and job-relevant training. These survey findings are consistent with the empirical studies of the predictors of transfer.

Grossman and Salas (2011) conducted a comprehensive review of the meta-analyses and other research reviews with the purpose of extracting

the strongest, most consistent findings from the literature in order to help organizations, and even researchers, identify the “bottom line” … [and to] serve as a valuable complement to Burke and Hutchins’s (2008) practice-based paper. (p. 117)

Within the category of trainee characteristics, Grossman and Salas confirmed the importance of cognitive ability, self-efficacy, and motivation for facilitating transfer of training to the job. They suggested that goal-setting was well established as a means to increase motivation and that transfer was facilitated when learners understood the relevance of the training to the job. These findings reinforce the findings from cognitive research and the studies of educational interventions showing that intrapersonal competencies, including motivation, enhance learning and transfer.

Grossman and Salas also discussed training design and concluded that the elements that most strongly facilitate transfer include behavior modeling, error management (an increasingly popular training strategy of allowing trainees to make errors and providing error management instructions), and realistic training environments (e.g., on-the-job training and the use of low- and high-fidelity simulations).

Concerning the work environment, the authors found that the transfer climate was the most important factor influencing transfer (Grossman and Salas, 2011). This finding is supported by the meta-analyses from Colquitt, LePine, and Noe (2000) and Blume et al. (2010). Specifically, Grossman and Salas found that transfer is facilitated when the trainee’s workplace prompts the use of the new competencies learned in training and when trainees are given goals, incentives, feedback, and the opportunity to practice the competencies. Two other features of the work environment shown to play an important role in facilitating transfer were supervisor support (which included such things as recognition, encouragement, rewards, and modeling) and peer support. These findings were similar to those of Blume et al. (2010). Still other features of the work environment that were found to play a role in facilitating transfer were the opportunity to perform the learned competencies with minimal delay, posttraining follow-up, and feedback. Figure 6-1 presents a summary of the factors affecting transfer that was originally developed by Baldwin and Ford (1988) and later modified by Grossman and Salas to reflect their findings.



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