Click for next page ( 232


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 231
Index [Page numbers followed by b, f, n, or t Assessing 21st century skills refer to boxed text, figure captions, notes, in alignment with Common Core or tables, respectively.] Standards and NRC framework, 13, 190 challenges to, 11–12, 149–150, A 189–190 challenges to systemic implementation Achievement competency, academic of interventions for deeper performance and, 45–46 learning, 190–191, 193 Adaptability and flexibility, 25, 55, 64, 89, classroom systems for, 179 93, 138 for collaboration, 148, 149 After-school programs. See Informal cost of, 12, 189–190 learning environments evidence-based approach in, 144 Agreeableness, 24, 29 intrapersonal and interpersonal American Association for the Advancement competencies, 12, 148–149, 189 of Science, 125–126 meaningful learning, 83 Antisocial behavior measurement of typical performance, cognitive skills to reduce, 22 149–150 educational outcomes, 45–47, 94 measures of cognitive competence, 22, employment outcomes, 51–52 145–147 evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, problem-solving skills, 145 4–5, 65 to promote deeper learning, 165–166, Anxiety, 45, 59 176–180, 188–190 Apprenticeship teaching, 169–170 psychometric analysis, 25–27, 189 Argumentation skills, 6 purpose, 176–177 learning goals for mathematics, qualities of measures for, 177 123–124 recommendations for design and Assertiveness, 24 development of instruction, 9, 10, 181, 182 231

OCR for page 231
232 EDUCATION FOR LIFE AND WORK recommendations for development of Cognitive competencies Common Core Standards and achievement competency and, 45 science standards, 13, 192 assessment, 22, 145–147 recommendations for research, 12–13, component skills, 168 67, 192 components of cognitive architecture, recommendations for systemic 75–76 implementation of interventions deeper learning and, 74, 84–85 to promote 21st century skills, development of, to promote capacity 13–14, 192–193 for transfer, 8–9, 180–181 research needs, 12–13, 67, 189, 191 differential psychology, 22–23 self-regulation skills, 95 domain-general knowledge in problem student self-assessment, 178–179 solving, 76–77 study goals, 2 domain of 21st century skills, 3, 4, 21 teacher capacity for, 12, 190 employment outcomes and, 49–50 transfer of competencies, 144–145 evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, Assessment, traditional 4, 37, 65–66 current approach, 11, 12, 145, 188–189 goals of Common Core Standards and intelligence testing, 22 NRC framework, 6, 133–135 retention and recognition tests, 83 health outcomes and, 58 study goals, 2, 17–18 for learning, 98 transfer tests, 83 learning goals for mathematics, See also Assessing 21st century skills 122–125 Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century models of human thinking and Skills, 16, 24 learning, 73–74 ATC21S project, 18, 149 noncognitive determinants, 52 Attention competency practice and feedback in, 79–82 academic performance and, 45–46 to promote transfer, instructional educational outcomes, 94 design for, 159–173 role of, 94 skill clusters, 4, 32t Auditory perception, 28 stability over time, 23 strategies for coping with complexity, 104 B structure of scientific knowledge, 128 successful interventions to promote Bar exams, 145–146 deeper learning, 150–159 Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 125–126 taxonomy of reflective latent Bloom, B. S., 21 variables, 27–28 Board games, for mathematics instruction, trends in workplace demands, 54–56 120b types of intelligences, 23 Bowling Alone (Putnam), 59 See also Critical thinking skills; Problem-solving skills Cognitive load theory, 98 C Collaboration. See Teamwork and Carnegie Corporation, 16–17 collaboration Cisco, 16 College and career readiness, 1, 17, 35 Civic engagement Common Core State Standards for English definition, 59 language arts and mathematics determinants of, 60–61 anchor standards for reading, educational attainment as predictive 109–111, 110f of, 5, 66 articulation of 21st century trends, 59, 60 competencies in, 11

OCR for page 231
INDEX 233 assessment frameworks and methods, evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, 13, 190 4–5, 65 conceptual approach to English arts health outcomes and, 58 instruction, 108–111 Construction of meaning, 104–105 evolution of mathematics standards, Costs 113–117 assessment, 12, 189–190 goals for capacity to transfer employer investment in employee knowledge, 6, 7, 141 training, 155 implementation challenges, 189, 191 Council of Chief State School Officers, 2, NRC science framework and, 6 17, 101 promotion of deeper learning Creativity, 16, 17 principles in, 6 as component of 21st century skills, 2 promotion of intrapersonal and Critical thinking skills interpersonal competencies in, 6 four resources model of reading, recommendations for assessment 106–107 systems, 13 importance of, 16, 122–123 significance of, for future of societal demand for, 1 education, 6, 101, 108 study goals, 1–2, 17 sociocultural perspective in, 74 See also Cognitive competencies study goals, 17 Crystallized intelligence, 23, 28 21st century skills in context of, Curriculum 2, 102, 111–112, 114–115b, developmental considerations in 122–124, 123f, 139–141, 189 design of, 186 Common Core State Standards for divergent approaches to English arts Mathematics, 117 instruction, 103–104 Communication skills, 4, 16, 17, 24 integrated, 7, 114–115b, 133–134 as component of 21st century skills, problem-solving and metacognitive 1–2 strategies in, 170–171 as element of interpersonal to promote deeper learning, 7, 186 competence, 3, 59 recommendations for design and goals of NRC science framework, 138 development of instruction, learning goals for mathematics, 123 9–10, 181–182 trends in workplace demands, 54 recommendations for systemic Communities of practice, 95–96, 187 implementation of interventions Competencies to promote 21st century skills, definition, 3, 23 13–14, 192–193 developmental psychology taxonomy, research needs, 186, 191 45 study goals, 2, 17–18 O*NET content model, 30, 31t typical mathematics instruction, 113, psychometric analysis, 25–27, 189 118 See also Cognitive competencies; Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for Interpersonal competencies; School Mathematics, 116 Intrapersonal competencies Complexity, 104 Conduct disorders, 45 D Conflict resolution, 4 Congress Decoding texts, 106, 107–108 Deeper learning recommendations for, 14 assessment, 83, 176–180 Conscientiousness, 24, 29, 89 case examples of learning in development of expertise, 8 environments for, 86–88, as educational outcome factor, 38–39 120–122b, 134–135b employment outcomes, 50–51 cognitive competencies and, 74, 84–85

OCR for page 231
234 EDUCATION FOR LIFE AND WORK components of, 84–86 Depression, 45 current understanding of, 82–83, Development 160b considerations in curriculum design definition, 1, 2–3, 5, 17, 74, 99 for deeper learning, 186 development of 21st century early academic competencies and later competencies and, 8, 19, 70, 74, academic achievement, 45–47 99 intelligence, 23–24 early instruction to promote, 161 intrapersonal and interpersonal evidence-based guidelines for domains, 24 instruction to promote, 159–161 personality traits, 24, 38 evidence of successful instructional Differential psychology, 22–23 intervention to promote, Digital technology 150–159 cognitive demands, 3 formative assessment to promote, societal demand for 21st century 165–166, 188–190 skills, 53–54 four resources model of reading, study goals, 2 106–108 See also Information and goals of Common Core Standards and communications technology NRC framework, 6, 111–112, literacy 114–115b, 123f, 189 Discourse skills, 6 guided discovery and feedback to Disparities in adult outcomes, development promote, 162–164 of 21st century competencies to instructional features for, 7–9, 97–99 reduce, 13, 190, 192–193 interpersonal processes in, 95–97 Diversity issues, 137, 138 in mathematics instruction, 119–122 Domain-general knowledge, 76–77 objectives, 5–6, 69–70 practice and feedback in, 79–82 priming student motivation for, E 164–165 Edison, Thomas Alva, 16 questioning techniques to promote, Educational outcomes 162 civic engagement and, 60–61 recommendations for design and correlations between competencies development of instruction, and behaviors in, 45–47 9–10, 181 development of 21st century in science instruction, 129–131 competencies to reduce study goals, 16–18 disparities in, 13–14, 190, systemic implementation of 192–193 interventions to promote, 19, early competencies and later 185–186 achievement, 45–47 teacher preparation for promoting, employment outcomes, 47–49 186–188 evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, through problem-based learning, 4, 5, 37, 66, 99 166–167 evidence of 21st century skills as use of examples and cases to promote, causal in, 4–5, 40–41t, 44t, 164 65–66 use of multiple and varied health outcomes and, 56–57 representations to promote, 9, international comparison, 15–16 161–162, 163b, 181 interpersonal processes in, 96 See also Transfer of knowledge and personality factors, 38–39, 44t skills rates of monetary return, 47–48 Department of Education, U.S., 13, 190

OCR for page 231
INDEX 235 significance of 21st century skills in, Extraneous processing, 98–99, 163b 2, 18–19 Extraversion, 26, 30 social good, 1, 15 Extroversion, 29 socioeconomic factors, 16 study goals, 17 transfer in the labor market and, 61–64 F Education and training of teachers, 186–188 Facebook, 53 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Feedback 14, 193 in formative assessment, 177–178 Emotional functioning in guided discovery, 162–164 instructional design principles for importance of, in learning, 80–82, enhancing, 175 147, 171 intrapersonal competency in, 3, 21 to promote problem solving and stability, 30, 51 metacognition, 10, 182 successful interventions to promote self-regulated learning and, 93 competence in, 151–152, Fifth Dimension, 154 153–154 Fluid intelligence, 23, 27 Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Forecasting ability, assessment of, 145 Students’ Motivation to Learn, Formative assessment, 10, 165–166, 176, 119 177–180, 182, 188 English language arts Formative latent variable, 26, 27, 30 deeper learning goals, Common Four resources model, 106–108, Core Standards and, 111–112, 109–111 114–115b Framework for K-12 Science Education, A development of Common Core (NRC science framework), 18 Standards for, 101–102 articulation of 21st century divergent approaches to instruction, competencies in, 11 102–106 assessment frameworks and methods, four resources model, 106–108 13, 190 instructional interventions promoting cognitive competency goals in, intrapersonal competencies, 151 136–137 integrated approach to instruction Common Core State Standards in Common Core Standards, for English language arts and 108–109, 114b mathematics, 6 See also Common Core State core disciplinary ideas, 132 Standards for English language crosscutting concepts, 132–133 arts and mathematics; Reading deeper learning goals in, 130–132 skills goals for capacity to transfer Essential processing, 98–99, 163b knowledge, 6, 7, 141 Ethics, 2, 17 goals for science instruction, 128–129 Examples and cases, instructional use of, 9, historical evolution of standards, 164, 181 125–126 Expertise implementation challenges, 189, 191 current understanding of, 78–79 interpersonal competencies in, 138 development of intrapersonal competencies in, metacognition in, 91–92 137–138 problem-solving strategies and, 77 key practices, 133, 138 self-regulated learning in, 93 organization of, 131–132 transfer of knowledge and, 82, 85–86, promotion of deeper learning 97–98 principles in, 6 Externalizing behaviors, 45

OCR for page 231
236 EDUCATION FOR LIFE AND WORK promotion of intrapersonal and Information and communications interpersonal competencies in, 6 technology literacy, societal recommendations for assessment demand for, 24, 53–56 systems, 13 Information processing model memory, significance of, for future of 75–76, 75f education, 6, 101 Initiation, 93 sociocultural perspective in, 74 Innovation, 2, 16, 17 study goals, 17 Insight, 72 21st century skills in context of, 2, Institute of Education Science, 159–161 102, 131, 133–134, 136–141, Intel, 16 136f, 189 Intellectual openness, 89 FrameWorks Institute, 18 Intelligence developmental stability, 23–24 testing, 22, 168 G types of, 23, 27–28 Internalizing behaviors, 45 Generative processing, 89, 98–99, 108, Internet and social media 163b utilization trends, 53 Gestalt psychology, 72, 82–83 See also Information and Goal-setting, 21–22 communications technology Guided discovery, 162–164 literacy Interpersonal competencies assessment challenges, 12, 149, 189 H assessment measures, 22 Handbook of Educational Psychology, current assessment practices, 148–149 159–161 deeper learning and, 95–97 Handbook of Reading Research, 105 developmental stability, 23, 24 Health outcomes development of, to promote capacity cognitive competency and, 58 for transfer of knowledge, 8, educational attainment and, 56–57, 66 180–181 evidence of 21st century skills as domain of 21st century skills, 3, 4, causal in, 4–5, 43, 65 21, 22 personality traits and, 58 employment outcomes, 55–56 Hewlett Foundation, 18, 24, 131 evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, Higher order thinking, 1, 17 4–5, 37, 65, 66 How Students Learn: History, in goals of Common Core Standards Mathematics, and Science in the and NRC framework, 6, Classroom, 121b 111–112, 123–125, 138, 140 instructional design principles, 173–175 I learning goals for mathematics, 125 recommendations for design and Individual differences, 22–23 development of instruction, Informal learning environments 10–11, 182–183 exhibit design to promote deeper self-regulated learning and, 93, 97 learning, 162, 164, 165 significance of, in learning, 22 priming student motivation in, 165 skill clusters, 34t, 95 settings, 2, 17–18, 153 successful interventions to promote, study goals, 2, 17–18 150–159 successful interventions to promote teaching practices to support deeper deeper learning, 153–154 learning, 7–8

OCR for page 231
INDEX 237 Intrapersonal competencies Learning theory assessment challenges, 12, 149, 189 memory processes in, 98 assessment measures, 22 sociocultural perspective, 73–74, 95, current assessment practices, 148–149 99 for deeper learning, 99 strong and weak problem-solving developmental stability, 23, 24 strategies, 76–77 development of, to promote capacity of transfer, 70–72 for transfer of knowledge, 8, 21st century skills in, 2, 17 180–181 use of schemas, 78–79 domain of 21st century skills, 3, 4, Learning to learn, 1–2, 17 21–22 Lexical hypothesis, 28 evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, Locus of control, 30, 30n 4–5, 37, 65, 66 Long-term memory, 76 in goals of Common Core Standards and NRC framework, 6, 111– 112, 123–125, 135–137, 140 M instructional design principles, 173–175 Mathematics learning goals for mathematics, 125 attention competency and, 94 recommendations for design and case example of environment for development of instruction, deeper learning, 86–88, 150–151 10–11, 182–183 cognitive skills in, 122–125 significance of, in learning, 22 deeper learning expectations in, skill clusters, 4, 33t, 88–89 119–122 successful interventions to promote, early academic competencies and 150–159 later academic achievement, teaching practices to support deeper 45–47 learning, 7–8 early instruction, 120–122b See also Motivation; Self-regulation evolution of Common Core Standards, 113–117 international comparison of student J performance, 15–16 Jangle fallacy, 25 learning goals for intrapersonal and John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur interpersonal competency, 125 Foundation, 16–17 recommendations for pedagogical reform, 118–119 research perspectives on teaching for L understanding, 117–119 study goals, 17 Latent variables, 25–27 typical instructional approach, 113, formative, 26, 27, 30 118 reflective, 26, 27–30 See also Common Core State Leadership skills, 4, 95 Standards for English language Learning 21st century skills arts and mathematics formative assessment to promote, 176 Memory problem-based approach, 166–167 for expertise, 79 role of beliefs and motivation in, information processing model, 75–76, 89–91 75f self-regulation in, 92–95 learning theory, 98 study goals, 2, 17–18 long-term, 76 See also Deeper learning; Teaching 21st in metacognitive skills, 92 century skills and competencies schematic knowledge, 78

OCR for page 231
238 EDUCATION FOR LIFE AND WORK taxonomy of cognitive abilities, 28 interpersonal relationship success and, types of learning outcomes, 83, 83t 59 working, 75–76 21st century competencies aligned Mental health, academic performance and, with, 89 45–46 New basic skills, 1, 17 Metacognition Next generation learning, 1, 17 definition, 8, 22, 91, 167 Next Generation Science Standards, 13, design principles for teaching, 101, 190 168–172, 172b No Child Left Behind, 116, 129 function, 167–168 Nonverbal communication skills mathematics instruction to promote, NRC science framework. See Framework 122 for K-12 Science Education, A recommendations for instruction to enhance, 10, 182 significance of, in learning, 8, 91–92 O Microsoft, 16 Occupational Information Network, 25 Model building skills, 145 O*NET content model, 30, 31t, 35–36 Modeling, 10, 164, 169, 182 Openness to experience, 29, 30, 38–39, 89 Monitoring and reflecting, 145, 170 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation Motivation and Development, 15–16, 23 in Common Core Standards Out-of-school programs. See Informal framework, 111–112 learning environments as component of 21st century skills, 1–2, 17 as determinant of intelligence, 23–24 in learning, 89–91, 99 P priming, 10, 164–165, 181 Packet Tracer, 178 social dimensions of, 97 Parenting interventions to promote 21st Multimedia learning, 98, 161–162, 163b century competencies, 154–155 Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 16, 131 Pearson Foundation, 17 N Peer modeling, 165 Persistence, 1–2, 17, 125, 140 National Council of Bar Examiners, Personality theory 145–146 determinants of relationship success, National Council of Teachers of 59 Mathematics, 116 determinants of school success, National Governors Association, 2, 17, 38–39, 44t 101 developmental stability, 23–24, 38 National Institute of Child Health and in differential psychology, 22–24 Human Development, 105 employment outcomes, 50–51 National Science Education Standards, evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, 126–127, 132 65–66 National Science Foundation, 17 Five Factor model, 24, 28–30, 38, Nellie Mae Education Foundation, 17 50–51 Neuroticism predictors of health outcomes, 58 definition, 29 taxonomy of reflective latent developmental patterns, 24 variables, 28–30 educational outcomes and, 38–39 Positive Action Program, 153 employment outcomes and, 51 Power law of practice, 80 health outcomes and, 58 Practice, 79–82, 171

OCR for page 231
INDEX 239 Practice-based professional education, R 186–187 Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Raikes Foundation, 17 Children, 105 Reaction time, 28 Priming student motivation, 10, 164–165, Reading skills 181 anchor standards in Common Core Principles and Standards for School Standards, 109–111, 110f Mathematics, 116 attention competency and, 94 Problem-based learning, 166–167 divergent approaches to instruction, Problem-solving skills 102–103 adult outcomes and, 16, 17 early academic competencies and later assessment, 145 academic achievement, 45–47 definition, 167 four resources model, 106–107, design principles for teaching, 109–111 167–172, 172b integrated approach to instruction instructional features of deep learning in Common Core Standards, for, 8–9 108–109 learning goals for mathematics, international comparison of student 123–125 performance, 15–16 recommendations for instruction to study goals, 17 enhance, 10, 182 See also Common Core State societal demand for, 1 Standards for English language strong methods, 77 arts and mathematics; English weak methods, 76–77 language arts See also Cognitive competencies Reciprocal teaching, 169–170 Procedural information, 76 Recommendations Productivity, 62–63, 66 for design of instructional practices Professional development, teacher for deeper learning, 9–10, 181 recommendations for systemic for development of assessments of implementation of interventions 21st century competencies, to promote 21st century skills, 12–13, 192 13–14, 193 for research into instruction targeted reforms to support instruction for to transferable intrapersonal and deeper learning, 186–188, 191 interpersonal competencies, 11, study goals, 2, 17–18 182–183 Professional Standards for Teaching for research into linkage between Mathematics, 118 21st century skills and adult Programme for International Student outcomes, 5, 66–67 Assessment, 15–16, 145, 146, for research into transfer of 149 knowledge and skills, 7, 141 Prompting, in problem-solving instruction, Reflective latent variables 169 clusters of 21st century competencies, Putnam, Robert, 59 35 cognitive abilities taxonomy, 27–28 definition, 26 Q personality taxonomy, 28–30 Representations of concepts and tasks, 9, Questioning techniques, 162 98, 128, 133–134, 161–162, 181

OCR for page 231
240 EDUCATION FOR LIFE AND WORK Research needs Self-direction, 93 assessment of 21st century Self-efficacy beliefs, 30, 51, 89–91, competencies, 12–13, 189, 191, 139–140, 164–165 192 Self-esteem, 30, 51 curriculum to develop 21st Self-evaluation, 30, 89, 178–179 competencies, 186, 191 Self-regulation instruction targeted to transferable academic and social outcomes intrapersonal and interpersonal predicted by, 94–95 competencies, 10–11, 182–183 assessment, 95 linkage between 21st century skills defining features of, 21–22, 94 and adult outcomes, 5, 66–67 instructional interventions based on, self-regulated learning, 93–94 93 self-regulation, 95 in learning, 92–94, 97, 99 transfer of knowledge within and learning goals for mathematics, 125 across disciplines, 7, 141 overlap with 21st century skills, 35, Retrieval ability, 28 93, 140 Rote learning, 9, 72, 82–83 research needs, 93–94, 95 social dimensions of, 97 successful interventions to promote, S 152–153 Semantic information, 76 Schematic knowledge, 78–79 SimScientists, 146–147, 178 Science and engineering instruction Skill acquisition curves, 80–82, 81f case example of deeper learning in, Social and cultural competency 134–135b determinants of success in personal content and process approaches, relationships, 58–59 126–127 role of social relationships in learning, current practice, 128–131 95–96 development of sophisticated scientific successful interventions to promote, knowledge in, 128 151–152, 153–154 evolution of national standards for as 21st century competency, 24, education in, 125–126 35 hands-on activities in, 126–127 See also Interpersonal competencies inquiry in, 127 Sociocultural models of learning, 73–74, in integrated curriculum, 132–135 95, 99 international comparison of student Socioeconomic disparities performance, 15–16 academic performance and, 16 science practices goals for, 130–131 civic engagement and, 60 strands of science proficiency, State assessments, 11, 111, 189, 191 133–135 Stereotype threat, 91 study goals, 17 Student centered learning, 1, 17, 103 teacher preparation for, 188 Study skills, 35 See also Framework for K-12 Science Stupski Foundation, 17 Education, A (NRC science Summative assessment, 176, 188–189 framework) Susan Crown Enchange Fund, 17 Science for All Americans, 126 Systems thinking, 123 Scientific method, 126–127 Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills, 25, 35 T Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading, 114b Self-affirmation theory, 91 Taking Science to School, 128, 133

OCR for page 231
INDEX 241 Teaching 21st century skills and cognitive competencies for, competencies instructional design for case example of learning environment enhancing, 159–173 for, 86–88 current understanding, 70–72, 82, 99 challenges to systemic definition, 15 implementation, 190–191, 193 delineation of learning goals for cognitive competencies to promote instruction in, 144 transfer, instructional design for, development of 21st century 159–173 competencies to promote, 8–9, early intervention, 161 180–181 implications of sociocultural model of domain-general knowledge for, 76–77 human learning, 73–74 domain-specific teaching for, 170, instructional features for deeper 172–173 learning, 7–9, 97–99 educational attainment and capacity intrapersonal and interpersonal for, 5 domain, instructional design expertise and, 85–86, 97–98 principles for, 173–175 as goal of Common Core Standards problem-solving and metacognitive and NRC framework, 6, 7, 141 strategies, 167–172 instructional challenges, 98 recommendations for design and labor market outcomes of educational development of instruction, attainment, 61–64 9–10, 181–182 as product of deeper learning, 5–6, 8, resources for implementation, 7 69–70, 99 role of assessment in, 176–180 recommendations for research, 7, 141 study goals, 2, 17 role of beliefs in, 89 successful intervention to promote shortcomings of current practice and deeper learning, 150–153 research needs, 7 teacher assessment skills for, 12 specific and general forms, 70–72 teacher preparation for, 186–188 successful instructional interventions use of examples and cases, 9, 164, to promote, 150–159 181 types of knowledge and, 84–86 Team training, 159, 175 types of learning and, 83, 83t Teamwork and collaboration use of schemas, 78 assessment, 148, 149 workplace interventions to promote, component skills, 95 155–159 for learning, 95–96 See also Deeper learning in mathematics instruction, 118–119 21st century skills and competencies in science education, 138 alignment with personality factors, self-regulated learning and, 93 31–35 as 21st century skills, 1–2, 4, 16, 17, assessment challenges, 11–12 24 clusters of component skills, 1–2, 3–4, Tools of the Mind, 152 25, 32–34t Transfer of knowledge and skills, 19, 143 deeper learning for development of, assessment challenges, 144–145 5–6, 8, 70, 74, 99 assessment goals, 144 definition, 1, 2–3, 5, 6, 17, 23, 25, challenges to systemic implementation 35, 67, 74 of interventions to promote, degrees of correlation with adult 190–191, 193 outcomes, 37–38 as characteristic of 21st century skills, domains of competence, 3, 21–22, 25 23, 74

OCR for page 231
242 EDUCATION FOR LIFE AND WORK evidence of causality in educational V and adult outcomes, 4–5, 37, 40–44t, 64–67 Visual perception, 28 goals of Common Core Standards and NRC framework and, 111–112, 123f, 131, 133–134, 136–141, W 136f, 189 William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, interactions among, 22 16–17 knowledge base, 24–25 Work ethic, 89 parenting interventions to promote, Working memory, 75–76, 98 154–155 Work outcomes recommendations for design and adaptability of firms to technological development of instruction, change, 62–63 9–10, 181 cognitive competency and, 49–50, recommendations for research, 5, 54–56 66–67 earnings, 47–48, 49, 54, 55, 63–64, 66 recursive relationship with deeper educational attainment and, 37, learning, 8, 99 47–49, 61–64, 66 resources for implementation in evidence of 21st century skills as current instructional practice, 7, causal in, 4–5, 37, 42–43t, 140 65–66 self-regulated learning and, 93 interpersonal skills as factor in, 55–56 societal benefits of promoting, 190 noncognitive correlations, 51–53 societal demand for, 1, 15, 16, 53–56 nonmonetary rewards, 48 study goals, 1–2, 16–18 personality factors in, 50–51 successful instructional interventions significance of 21st century skills in, to promote, 150–159 2, 18–19, 70 systemic implementation of study goals, 17 interventions to promote, 13–14, team training interventions, 159 19, 185–190, 192–193 transferability of skills across taxonomy, 35–36 occupations, 62–64 transferable knowledge as trends in marketplace demands, characteristic of, 23, 74 53–56, 70 trends in education, 16 workplace interventions to promote See also Teaching 21st century skills transferable competencies, and competencies 155–159 Twitter, 53 Writing skills, 107