recommendations for development of Common Core Standards and science standards, 13, 192

recommendations for research, 1213, 67, 192

recommendations for systemic implementation of interventions to promote 21st century skills, 1314, 192193

research needs, 1213, 67, 189, 191

self-regulation skills, 95

student self-assessment, 178179

study goals, 2

teacher capacity for, 12, 190

transfer of competencies, 144145

Assessment, traditional

current approach, 11, 12, 145, 188189

intelligence testing, 22

retention and recognition tests, 83

study goals, 2, 1718

transfer tests, 83

See also Assessing 21st century skills

Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills, 16, 24

ATC21S project, 18, 149

Attention competency

academic performance and, 4546

educational outcomes, 94

role of, 94

Auditory perception, 28

B

Bar exams, 145146

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 125126

Bloom, B. S., 21

Board games, for mathematics instruction, 120b

Bowling Alone (Putnam), 59

C

Carnegie Corporation, 1617

Cisco, 16

Civic engagement

definition, 59

determinants of, 6061

educational attainment as predictive of, 5, 66

trends, 59, 60

Cognitive competencies

achievement competency and, 45

assessment, 22, 145147

component skills, 168

components of cognitive architecture, 7576

deeper learning and, 74, 8485

development of, to promote capacity for transfer, 89, 180181

differential psychology, 2223

domain-general knowledge in problem solving, 7677

domain of 21st century skills, 3, 4, 21

employment outcomes and, 4950

evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, 4, 37, 6566

goals of Common Core Standards and NRC framework, 6, 133135

health outcomes and, 58

for learning, 98

learning goals for mathematics, 122125

models of human thinking and learning, 7374

noncognitive determinants, 52

practice and feedback in, 7982

to promote transfer, instructional design for, 159173

skill clusters, 4, 32t

stability over time, 23

strategies for coping with complexity, 104

structure of scientific knowledge, 128

successful interventions to promote deeper learning, 150159

taxonomy of reflective latent variables, 2728

trends in workplace demands, 5456

types of intelligences, 23

See also Critical thinking skills; Problem-solving skills

Cognitive load theory, 98

Collaboration. See Teamwork and collaboration

College and career readiness, 1, 17, 35

Common Core State Standards for English language arts and mathematics

anchor standards for reading, 109111, 110f

articulation of 21st century competencies in, 11



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