assessment frameworks and methods, 13, 190

conceptual approach to English arts instruction, 108111

evolution of mathematics standards, 113117

goals for capacity to transfer knowledge, 6, 7, 141

implementation challenges, 189, 191

NRC science framework and, 6

promotion of deeper learning principles in, 6

promotion of intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies in, 6

recommendations for assessment systems, 13

significance of, for future of education, 6, 101, 108

sociocultural perspective in, 74

study goals, 17

21st century skills in context of, 2, 102, 111112, 114115b, 122124, 123f, 139141, 189

Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, 117

Communication skills, 4, 16, 17, 24

as component of 21st century skills, 12

as element of interpersonal competence, 3, 59

goals of NRC science framework, 138

learning goals for mathematics, 123

trends in workplace demands, 54

Communities of practice, 9596, 187

Competencies

definition, 3, 23

developmental psychology taxonomy, 45

O*NET content model, 30, 31t

psychometric analysis, 2527, 189

See also Cognitive competencies; Interpersonal competencies; Intrapersonal competencies

Complexity, 104

Conduct disorders, 45

Conflict resolution, 4

Congress

recommendations for, 14

Conscientiousness, 24, 29, 89

in development of expertise, 8

as educational outcome factor, 3839

employment outcomes, 5051

evidence of linkage to adult outcomes, 45, 65

health outcomes and, 58

Construction of meaning, 104105

Costs

assessment, 12, 189190

employer investment in employee training, 155

Council of Chief State School Officers, 2, 17, 101

Creativity, 16, 17

as component of 21st century skills, 2

Critical thinking skills

four resources model of reading, 106107

importance of, 16, 122123

societal demand for, 1

study goals, 12, 17

See also Cognitive competencies

Crystallized intelligence, 23, 28

Curriculum

developmental considerations in design of, 186

divergent approaches to English arts instruction, 103104

integrated, 7, 114115b, 133134

problem-solving and metacognitive strategies in, 170171

to promote deeper learning, 7, 186

recommendations for design and development of instruction, 910, 181182

recommendations for systemic implementation of interventions to promote 21st century skills, 1314, 192193

research needs, 186, 191

study goals, 2, 1718

typical mathematics instruction, 113, 118

Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, 116

D

Decoding texts, 106, 107108

Deeper learning

assessment, 83, 176180

case examples of learning environments for, 8688, 120122b, 134135b

cognitive competencies and, 74, 8485



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