database. Aligning the various competencies with extant, research-based personality and ability taxonomies illuminates the relationships between them and suggests a preliminary new taxonomy of 21st century competencies. Much further research is needed to more clearly define the competencies at each level of the proposed taxonomy, to understand the extent to which various competencies and competency clusters may be malleable, to elucidate the relationships among the competencies, and to identify the most effective ways to teach and learn these competencies.

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