EDUCATION FOR
LIFE AND WORK

Developing Transferable Knowledge
and Skills in the 21st Century

Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills

James W. Pellegrino and Margaret L. Hilton, Editors


Board on Testing and Assessment
and
Board on Science Education

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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EDUCATION FOR LIFE AND WORK Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills James W. Pellegrino and Margaret L. Hilton, Editors Board on Testing and Assessment and Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri- ate balance. This study was supported by the Carnegie Corporation of New York under Con- tract No. B8767, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation under Contract No. 2009-5117, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation under Contract No. 10-97354-000-HCD, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. DRL-0956223, the Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the Pearson Foundation, the Raikes Foundation, the Susan Crown Exchange Fund, and the Stupski Founda- tion. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-25649-0 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-25649-6 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data are available from the Library of Congress. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2012). Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century. Commit- tee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills, J.W. Pellegrino and M.L. Hilton, Editors. Board on Testing and Assessment and Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi­ neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences ­ in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The C ­ ouncil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON DEFINING DEEPER LEARNING AND 21ST CENTURY SKILLS JAMES W. PELLEGRINO (Chair), Learning Sciences Research Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago GREG J. DUNCAN, Department of Education, University of California, Irvine JOAN L. HERMAN, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, University of California, Los Angeles MARGARET A. HONEY, New York Hall of Science, Queens PATRICK C. KYLLONEN, Center for New Constructs, Educational Testing Service HENRY M. LEVIN, Teachers College, Columbia University CHRISTINE MASSEY, Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania RICHARD E. MAYER, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara C. KENT McGUIRE, Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia P. DAVID PEARSON, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley EDWARD A. SILVER, School of Education and Mathematics Department, University of Michigan MARGARET L. HILTON, Study Director STUART ELLIOTT, Director, Board on Testing and Assessment KELLY IVERSON, Senior Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT EDWARD HAERTEL (Chair), School of Education, Stanford University LYLE BACHMAN, Department of Applied Linguistics and TESOL, University of California, Los Angeles STEPHEN DUNBAR, College of Education, University of Iowa MARK DYNARSKI, Pemberton Research, LLC DAVID J. FRANCIS, Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics, University of Houston JOAN L. HERMAN, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, University of California, Los Angeles MICHAEL KANE, Test Validity, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey ROBERT D. MARE, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles MICHAEL NETTLES, Policy Evaluation and Research Center, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey DIANA C. PULLIN, School of Education, Boston College ANN MARIE RYAN, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University BRIAN STECHER, Education Program, The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California MARK R. WILSON, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley REBECCA ZWICK, Research and Development, Educational Testing Service, Santa Barbara, California STUART ELLIOTT, Director vi

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BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION HELEN QUINN (Chair), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University GEORGE BOGGS, American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC WILLIAM B. BONVILLIAN, Washington, DC, Office, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RODOLFO DIRZO, School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University JOSEPH S. FRANCISCO, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University ADAM GAMORAN, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin–Madison JERRY P. GOLLUB, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College MARGARET HONEY, New York Hall of Science, Queens JAN HUSTLER, Partnership for Student Success in Science, Synopsys, Inc., Mountain View, California SUSAN W. KIEFFER, Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MICHAEL LACH, Urban Education Institute, University of Chicago CARLO PARRAVANO, Merck Institute for Science Education, Rahway, New Jersey BRIAN REISER, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University SUZANNE WILSON, College of Education, Michigan State University MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Director vii

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Acknowledgments T he committee and staff thank the many individuals and organizations who assisted us in our work and without whom this study could not have been completed. First we acknowledge the generous support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the ­ National Science Foundation, the Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the Pearson Foundation, the Raikes Foundation, the Susan Crown Ex- change Fund, and the Stupski Foundation. We are particularly grateful to Barbara Chow, program director for education, and Kristi Kimball, former program officer, at the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, who iden- tified the need for a consensus study of deeper learning and 21st century skills and conveyed the importance of the study to other sponsors. We also thank Bruce Fuchs, director of the Office of Science Education at the N ­ ational Institutes of Health, who initiated and supported a series of previ- ous National Research Council (NRC) workshops on 21st century skills. These previous activities provided an important starting point for this study, illuminating key strands of relevant research. Thanks are also due to Susan Bales and Nat Kendall-Taylor of the FrameWorks Institute. The guidance they provided in written memos, pre- sentations, and informal conversations helped to frame and communicate the messages contained in this report. Many individuals at the NRC assisted the committee. Board on Testing and Assessment director Stuart Elliott played a critical role throughout the ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS project, from conceptualizing the study scope to participating in committee discussions and teleconferences. We thank Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, who shepherded the report through the NRC review process; Robert Pool, who edited the draft report; and Yvonne Wise for processing the report through final production. We are grateful to Kelly Iverson, who arranged logistics for all three committee meetings and assisted with editing and preparing the manuscript for review and final publication. We appreciate the assistance of Patricia Morison, director of the communications office of the NRC Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and Sara Frueh, communications officer. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Diane F. Halpern, Department of Psychology, Claremont McKenna College; Karen R. Harris, Department of Special Education and Literacy, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University; Kevin Lang, Department of Economics, Boston University; Richard Lehrer, Department of Teach- ing and Learning, Peabody College of Vanderbilt University; Frank Levy, Department of Urban Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Lorrie A. Shepard, School of Education, University of Colorado at Boulder; and Nancy T. Tippins, Sr. Vice President and Managing Principal, Valtera Corporation, Greenville, SC. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the re- port, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. Deborah Stipek of the Stanford University School of Education and Elisabeth M. Drake, retired associate director for new energy technology, Energy Labora- tory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, oversaw the review of this re- port. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi Finally, we thank our colleagues on the committee for their enthusiasm, hard work, and collaborative spirit in thinking through the conceptual issues and challenges associated with addressing the charge to the study committee and in writing this report. James W. Pellegrino, Chair Margaret L. Hilton, Study Director Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills

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Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 15 2 A Preliminary Classification of Skills and Abilities 21 3 Importance of Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills 37 4 Perspectives on Deeper Learning 69 5 Deeper Learning of English Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science 101 6 Teaching and Assessing for Transfer 143 7 Systems to Support Deeper Learning 185 References 195 Appendixes A 21st Century Skills and Competencies Included in the OECD Survey 219 B Reports on 21st Century Skills Used in Aligning and Clustering Competencies 221 C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 225 Index 231 xiii

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