COMMUNITY
COLLEGES

IN THE EVOLVING
STEM EDUCATION
LANDSCAPE

Summary of a Summit

Steve Olson and Jay B. Labov, Rapporteurs

Planning Committee on Evolving Relationships and Dynamics Between
Two- and Four-Year Colleges and Universities

Board on Higher Education and Workforce
Division on Policy and Global Affairs

Board on Life Sciences
Division on Earth and Life Studies

Board on Science Education
Teacher Advisory Council

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Engineering Education Program Office

National Academy of Engineering

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCILAND
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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COMMUNITY COLLEGES IN THE E V O LV I N G STEM EDUCATION LANDSCAPE Summary of a Summit Steve Olson and Jay B. Labov, Rapporteurs Planning Committee on Evolving Relationships and Dynamics Between Two- and Four-Year Colleges and Universities Board on Higher Education and Workforce Division on Policy and Global Affairs Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Science Education Teacher Advisory Council Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Engineering Education Program Office National Academy of Engineering

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi - neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. EHR 1112988 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation, and in-kind support from the Carnegie Institution for Science. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25654-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25654-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council and National Academy of Engi - neering. (2012). Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Education Landscape: Sum- mary of a Summit. S. Olson and J.B. Labov, Rapporteurs. Planning Committee on Evolving Relationships and Dynamics Between Two- and Four-Year Colleges, and Universities. Board on Higher Education and Workforce, Division on Policy and Global Affairs. Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies. Board on Science Education, Teacher Advisory Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Engineering Education Program Office, National Academy of Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstand - ing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro - viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON EVOLVING RELATIONSHIPS AND DYNAMICS BETWEEN TWO- AND FOUR- YEAR COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES GEORGE R. BOGGS (Chair), President Emeritus, American Association of Community Colleges THOMAS R. BAILEY, Columbia University LINNEA FLETCHER, Austin Community College BRIDGET TERRY LONG, Harvard University JUDY C. MINER, Foothill Community College KARL S. PISTER,* University of California JAY B. LABOV, Senior Advisor for Education and Communication, Director, National Academies Teacher Advisory Council, and Project Study Director CATHERINE DIDION, Senior Program Officer, National Academy of Engineering, and Project Co-Director PETER H. HENDERSON, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce, and Project Co-Director MARGARET L. HILTON, Senior Program Officer, Board on Science Education MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Director, Board on Science Education, and Project Co-Director CYNTHIA A. WEI, Christine Mirzayan Policy Fellow, National Academy of Sciences (through December 16, 2012) ORIN E. LUKE, Senior Program Assistant MARY ANN KASPER, Senior Program Assistant *Member, National Academy of Engineering v

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Acknowledgments This summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals cho- sen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The reviewers’ comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this summary: Ashok Agrawal, vice president for academic affairs, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Louis Community College at Florissant Valley; Cathleen Aubin Barton, education manager, Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ; George R. Boggs, superintendent/president emeritus, Palo- mar College and president and CEO emeritus, American Association of Community Colleges; and Ronald Williams, vice president, The College Board, Washington, DC. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Melvin D. George, president emeritus, St. Olaf College, and the University of Missouri Sys - tem. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution. We thank Orin Luke, senior program assistant, for his valuable con - tributions to planning and implementing the logistics for all aspects of the convocation. We also thank Cynthia Wei, former Christine Mirzayan Policy fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, and Rebecca Fischler, communication officer in the NRC’s Division on Earth and Life Studies, for her critical expert advice and assistance with developing and main - taining the convocation’s website (see http://nas-sites.org/community collegessummit/) and electronic procedures. Special thanks are extended to Toby Horn, Carnegie Institution for Science, and the Carnegie Institution itself for working with the staff to provide the venue for this event and offering in-kind support to make the venue available to the committee and participants. Finally, we thank all of the participants for taking the time and, for many, the expense to come to this convocation. George Boggs, Ph.D. Jay B. Labov, Ph.D. Chair, Organizing Committee Study Director and Rapporteur

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Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Expanding Minority Participation in Undergraduate STEM Education 11 3 The Loss of Students from STEM Majors 19 4 Outreach, Recruitment, and Mentoring 23 5 The Two-Year Curriculum in Mathematics 29 6 Transfer from Community Colleges to Four-Year Institutions 35 7 General Discussion 41 References 51 Appendixes A Summit Agenda 53 B Effective Outreach, Recruitment, and Mentoring into STEM Pathways: Strengthening Partnerships with Community Colleges 57 Becky Wai-Ling Packard ix

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x CONTENTS C Two-Year College Mathematics and Student Progression in STEM Programs of Study 81 Debra D. Bragg D Developing Supportive STEM Community College to Four-Year College and University Transfer Ecosystems 107 Alicia C. Dowd E Brief Biographies of Committee Members and Staff 135 F Brief Biographies of Presenters and Panelists 141