not work are unrealistic for many students at community colleges, such as students with families. All levels of education must consider what it takes to make education work for their students, Fletcher said. In addition, Judy Miner from Foothill College, who was also a member of the organizing committee, reminded the participants of the importance of family engagement, community, and culture in attracting and retaining students of color in STEM.

Another member of the organizing committee, Thomas Bailey from Teachers College, Columbia University, observed that one potent recruiting tool for STEM transfer students could be introductory science courses at community colleges. Developmental education courses or student success courses are other ways to help students find direction. Students often are not aware of the requirements for transferring, even when they have declared a major leading to eventual transfer. “What is our responsibility to make sure that those students are progressing in a systematic and coherent way toward those goals?” asked Bailey. More advisers are needed, of course, but community colleges will need to combine technology with advisers given their financial constraints.

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