14. COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection, COSPAR Workshop on Planetary Protection for Titan and Ganymede, COSPAR, Paris, France, 2010, p. 30.

15. COSPAR. 1969. COSPAR Decision No. 16, COSPAR Information Bulletin, No. 50, pp. 15-16. COSPAR, Paris.

16. For a recent discussion of the concept of the period of biological exploration see, for example, National Research Council, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2006, pp. 13-14, 17, 22-23, and 25.

17. National Research Council, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2000, pp. 2, 22, and 25.

18. COSPAR, “COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (20 October 2002; As Amended to 24 March 2011),” COSPAR, Paris, p. A-1, available at http://cosparhq.cnes.fr/Scistr/PPPolicy%20(24Mar2011).pdf.

19. COSPAR, “COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (20 October 2002; As Amended to 24 March 2011),” COSPAR, Paris, p. A-1, available at http://cosparhq.cnes.fr/Scistr/PPPolicy%20(24Mar2011).pdf.

20. Personal communication with committee, Christopher Chyba, October 2011.

21. C. Sagan and S. Coleman, Spacecraft sterilization standards and contamination of Mars, Astronautics and Aeronautics 3(5), 1965.

22. C. Sagan and S. Coleman, “Decontamination standards for martian exploration programs,” pp. 470-481 in National Research Council, Biology and the Exploration of Mars, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1966.

23. J. Barengoltz, A review of the approach of NASA projects to planetary protection compliance, IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2005, doi:10.1109/AERO.2005.1559319.

24. COSPAR, “COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (20 October 2002; As Amended to 24 March 2011),” COSPAR, Paris, p. A-6, available at http://cosparhq.cnes.fr/Scistr/PPPolicy%20(24Mar2011).pdf.

25. N.R. Pace, A molecular view of microbial diversity and the biosphere, Science 276(5313):734-740, 1997.

26. National Research Council, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2003.

27. National Research Council, Vision and Voyages of Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2011.



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