91. N.J. Russell, Cold adaptation of microorganisms, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 326:595-611, 1990.

92. For additional details see, for example Figures 1 and 2 in C. Gerday, M. Aittaleb, J.-L. Arpigny, E. Baise, J.-P. Chessa, G. Garssoux, I. Petrescu, and G. Feller, Psychtrophilic enzymes: A thermodynamic challenge, Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 1342:119-131, 1997; Figure 2 in C. Gerday, M. Aittaleb, M. Bentahir, J.-P. Chessa, P. Claverie, T. Collins, S. D’Amico, J. Dumont, G. Garsoux, D. Georlette, A. Hoyoux, T. Lonhienne, M.-A. Meuwis, and G. Feller, Cold-adapted enzymes: From fundamentals to biotechnology, Trends in Biotechnology 18:103-107, 2000; and Figure 2 in D. Georlette, V. Blaise, T. Collins, S. D’Amico, E. Gratia, A. Hoyoux, J.-C. Marx, G. Sonan, G. Feller, C. Gerday, Some like it cold: Biocatalysis at low temperatures, FEMS Microbiology Reviews 28:25-42, 2004.

93. R.D. Haight and R.Y. Morita, Thermally induced leakage from Vibrio marinus an obligately psychrophilic marine bacterium, Journal of Bacteriology 92:1388-1393, 1966.

94. For discussions of the molecular adaptations of membrane lipids and the effects of temperature on their stability see, for example, N.J. Russell, Psychrophilic bacteria—Molecular adaptations of membrane lipids, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 118A:489-493, 1997.

95. V.A. Shcherbakova, N.A. Chuvilskaya, E.M. Rivkina, S.A. Pecheritsyna, K.S. Laurinavichius, N.E. Suzina, G.A. Osipov, A.M. Lysenko, D.A. Gilichinsky, and V.K. Akimenko, Novel psychrophilic anaerobic spore-forming bacterium from the overcooled water brine in permafrost: Description of Clostridium algoriphilum sp. nov, Extremophiles 9:239-246, 2005.

96. V.A. Shcherbakova, N.A. Chuvilskaya, E.M. Rivkina, S.A. Pecheritsyna, K.S. Laurinavichius, N.E. Suzina, G.A. Osipov, A.M. Lysenko, D.A. Gilichinsky, and V.K. Akimenko, Novel psychrophilic anaerobic spore-forming bacterium from the overcooled water brine in permafrost: Description of Clostridium algoriphilum sp. nov, Extremophiles 9:239-246, 2005.

97. The decimal reduction factor, D10, is defined as the exposure—e.g., to heat or radiation—required to reduce the microbial population to one-tenth of its initial number. D10 values are measured experimentally and quoted values apply only to the exact conditions under which they are measured. The exposure may be quoted in terms of the time subjected to heat at a particular temperature or to the total absorbed radiation dose. Thus D10 values are frequently quoted in minutes (when determined by heating) or in grey (when determined by exposure to ionizing radiation).

98. T.E. Shehata and E.B. Collins, Sporulation and heat resistance of psychrophilic strains of Bacillus, Journal of Dairy Science 54:1405-1409, 1972.

99. A.D. Warth, Relationship between the heat resistance of spores and the optimum and maximum growth temperatures of Bacillus species, Journal of Bacteriology 134:699-705, 1978.



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