JOHN A. BAROSS is a professor of oceanography and in the Astrobiology Program at the University of Washington, Seattle. His research specialty is the ecology, physiology, and molecular phylogeny of microorganisms and viruses from hydrothermal vent and subseafloor environments. Dr. Baross has particular interests in the microbiology of extreme environments and in the significance of submarine hydrothermal vent systems for the origin and evolution of life and for the possibility of life on other planets in similar settings. He received his Ph.D. in marine microbiology from the University of Washington. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and a national associate of the National Research Council. His NRC service includes chairing the Committee on the Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems, co-chairing the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life and the Committee for a Review of Programs to Determine the Extent of Life in the Universe, and serving as a member on the Steering Group for the Workshop on Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms, the Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies, and the Ad Hoc Task Group on Mars Planetary Protection.

AMY C. BARR is an assistant professor in the Department of Geological Sciences at Brown University. Her research interests are in planetary mantle convection with an emphasis on icy satellites, planetary impacts, ice physics, and nonlinear fluid dynamics. After completing her Ph.D. at the University of Colorado in 2004, she held a postdoctoral position at Washington University, St. Louis, and then joined Southwest Research Institute, where she remained until 2011. She has been a principal investigator in the NASA Cassini data analysis program, the outer planets research program, and the planetary geology and geophysics program. Her current research interests are in accretion and early thermal evolution of planetary satellites, planetary impacts, heat transfer in solid planets, evolution of grain size and crystal fabric in ice, and the relationship between solid-state convection and resurfacing on icy bodies. Dr. Barr is a graduate of the California Institute of Technology, where she completed a B.S. in planetary science. In 2007, Dr. Barr received a NASA early career fellowship.

WILLIAM V. BOYNTON is a professor in the Department of Planetary Sciences at the University of Arizona. His research interests include mineralogic and trace element studies of meteorites and impact events, internal stratigraphy and provenance of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments, remote sensing via gamma-ray spectrometry, instrumentation for chemical analysis of planetary surfaces, and Mars surface chemistry. He has been extensively involved in Mars missions since 1984. His gamma-ray spectrometer first flew on the ill-fated Mars Observer spacecraft in the early 1990s before being successfully deployed by Mars Odyssey in 2002. He is the principal investigator of the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis instrument, which studied the chemical properties of martian surface materials on the Mars Phoenix spacecraft. His extensive NRC service includes membership on the Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample-Return Missions, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, the Committee on the Assessment of Solar System Exploration, and the Committee on Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities.

CHARLES S. COCKELL is a professor of astrobiology at the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Edinburgh. He was formerly a professor and chair of geomicrobiology in the Center for Earth, Planetary, Space, and Astronomical Research at the Open University in the United Kingdom. His research focuses on microbemineral interactions and the way in which microorganisms colonize and live in rocky environments in the solar system. Dr. Cockell’s committee service has included membership on the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) Life Sciences Working Group, the ESA Planetary Protection Working Group, the ESA Science and Technology Advisory Group, and the NASA Mars Human Precursor Science Steering Group. He is a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, the Explorers Club of New York, the British Interplanetary Society, and the Royal Astronomical Society. Dr. Cockell has authored two popular science books and has been the co-editor of four scientific books. In 1994 he founded the Earth and Space Foundation, a charity that awards grants to expeditions that successfully bridge the gap between environmentalism and the exploration and settlement of space by either using space technologies and ideas in environmental fieldwork or using environments on Earth to advance knowledge of other planets. He received his D.Phil. in molecular biophysics from the University of Oxford.

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