C

Brief Biographies of
Presenters and Panelists

Bruce Alberts, a prominent biochemist with a strong commitment to the improvement of science and mathematics education, serves as editor-in-chief of Science and as one of President Obama’s first three Science Envoys. Dr. Alberts is also professor emeritus in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, to which he returned after serving two six-year terms as the president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS).

During his tenure at the NAS, Dr. Alberts was instrumental in developing the landmark National Science Education standards that have been implemented in school systems nationwide. The type of “science as inquiry” teaching we need, says Dr. Alberts, emphasizes “logical, hands on problem solving, and it insists on having evidence for claims that can be confirmed by others. It requires work in cooperative groups, where those with different types of talents can discover them—developing self confidence and an ability to communicate effectively with others.”

Dr. Alberts is also noted as one of the original authors of The Molecular Biology of the Cell, a preeminent textbook in the field now in its fifth edition. For the period 2000 to 2009, he served as the co-chair of the Inter-Academy Council, a new organization in Amsterdam governed by the presidents of 15 national academies of sciences and established to provide scientific advice to the world.

Committed in his international work to the promotion of the “creativity, openness and tolerance that are inherent to science,” Dr. Alberts believes that scientists all around the world must now band together to



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C Brief Biographies of Presenters and Panelists Bruce Alberts, a prominent biochemist with a strong commitment to the improvement of science and mathematics education, serves as editor- in-chief of Science and as one of President Obama’s first three Science Envoys. Dr. Alberts is also professor emeritus in the Department of Bio- chemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, to which he returned after serving two six-year terms as the president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). During his tenure at the NAS, Dr. Alberts was instrumental in devel- oping the landmark National Science Education standards that have been implemented in school systems nationwide. The type of “science as inquiry” teaching we need, says Dr. Alberts, emphasizes “logical, hands- on problem solving, and it insists on having evidence for claims that can be confirmed by others. It requires work in cooperative groups, where those with different types of talents can discover them—developing self confidence and an ability to communicate effectively with others.” Dr. Alberts is also noted as one of the original authors of The Molecular Biology of the Cell, a preeminent textbook in the field now in its fifth edi- tion. For the period 2000 to 2009, he served as the co-chair of the Inter- Academy Council, a new organization in Amsterdam governed by the presidents of 15 national academies of sciences and established to provide scientific advice to the world. Committed in his international work to the promotion of the “cre - ativity, openness and tolerance that are inherent to science,” Dr. Alberts believes that scientists all around the world must now band together to 85

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86 APPENDIX C help create more rational, scientifically based societies that find dogma - tism intolerable. Widely recognized for his work in the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology, Dr. Alberts has earned many honors and awards, including 16 honorary degrees. He currently serves on the advisory boards of more than 25 non-profit institutions, including the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Cynthia M. Beall (see Appendix B) Paul Beardsley (see Appendix B) Spencer Benson is the director of the Center for Teaching Excellence, associate professor in the Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics and an affiliate associate professor in the Department of Cur- riculum and Instruction at the University of Maryland, College Park. Dr. Benson has served as a consultant for Project 2061, the Quality Under- graduate Education (QUE) initiative, the Coalition for Education in the Life Science (CELS), Science Education for New Civic Engagement and Responsibility (SENCER), and the Center for Advancement of Stem Edu - cation (CASE). He has been involved in numerous K-16 education initia - tives at the University of Maryland including an on-line Master Program in the Life Sciences for high school biology teachers. He is past chair of the Undergraduate Education Committee of the American Society of Micro - biology (ASM), past chair of ASM’s Div-W (Teaching), and interim chair member of ASM’s International Education Committee. He is a founding member of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (ISSoTL) and the ASM sponsored Biological Scholars Program. In the 2002 he was named the CASE-Carnegie Maryland Professor of the Year award and in 2011 he was awarded the ASM Carski Teaching award. Dr. Benson has been an AP Biology exam reader (six years), test item reviewer, cochair of the AP Biology Redesign Commission (2006-2007), a member of the AP Biology Review Advisory Panel (2008), and cochair of the AP Biology Curriculum, Development and Assessment Committee (2008-2012). V. Celeste Carter is a program director in the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dr. Carter received her Ph.D. in microbiology from the Pennsylvania State Uni- versity School of Medicine in 1982 under the direction of Dr. Satvir S. Tevethia. She completed postdoctoral studies in the laboratory of Dr. G. Steven Martin at the University of California at Berkeley. She joined the Division of Biological and Health Sciences at Foothill College in 1994 to

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87 APPENDIX C develop and head a Biotechnology Program. She served as a program director twice in the Division of Undergraduate Education as a rotator. Dr. Carter accepted a permanent program director position in DUE in 2009; she is the lead program director for the Advanced Technological Educa- tion (ATE) Program in DUE. Betty Carvellas retired in 2007 after teaching science for 39 years at the middle and high school levels. She was a founding member of the National Academies Teacher Advisory Council (TAC) and currently serves as the Teacher Leader for the TAC. Her interests include inter- disciplinary teaching, connecting “school” science to the real world, and bringing the practice of science into the classroom. Throughout her career, she traveled extensively on her own and with students. Her professional service includes work at the local, state, and national levels. She served as co-chair of the education committee and was a member of the executive board of the Council of Scientific Society Presidents and is a past presi - dent of the National Association of Biology Teachers. Included among her awards are the Outstanding Science Teacher-Vermont (1981), Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching (1984), and a Christa McAuliffe fellowship. In 2001, she was selected for an NSF pro - gram, Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic, and she has since participated in seven research expeditions in the Arctic. In 2008, she was designated a lifetime National Associate of the National Research Council of the National Academies. She received her B.A. from Colby College, her M.S. from the State University of New York at Oswego, and a Certificate of Advanced Study from the University of Vermont. Amy L. Chang has served the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Education Board since the 1980s. The ASM is one of the oldest and larg - est life science organizations, representing 38,000 members worldwide. About 60 percent of the members are microbiologists employed as faculty, staff, administrators, researchers, and students at colleges and universi - ties. The Board advances the ASM’s mission to educate individuals at all levels in the microbiological sciences. ASM is a voluntary organization. ASM members, serving as leaders and scientific experts, work in concert with a professional staff to sponsor programs, advance the ASM mission, and ensure stability. Under her leadership, the Board is responsible for educators and faculty programs including the (i) annual Conference for Undergraduate Educators; (ii) professional development program in science teaching and science education research (Biology Scholars and Faculty Programs); and (iii) Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education and digital resources for microbiology. In September 2000, the Board was bestowed with the Presi-

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88 APPENDIX C dential Award for Excellence in Mentoring Underrepresented Minorities in Science, Math, and Engineering Sciences. The Board sponsors for students (i) national research fellowships; (ii) the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Undergraduate Minor- ity Students (ABRCMS); and (iii) professional development programs for graduate students and postdoctoral scientists in grantsmanship, publish - ing, presentations, teaching and mentoring, ethics, and career planning. James P. Collins (see Appendix B) William (Bill) Galey is director of graduate and medical education pro- grams at Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). He directs HHMI’s programs to enhance biomedical science graduate education and scien- tific training of medical students. He directs the HHMI Medical Research Fellows Program, which provides opportunities for medical students to engage in a year of intensive year of research. Dr. Galey was intimately involved in the HHMI partnership with the Association of American Medical Colleges known as Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (SFFP), which sets out the scientific competencies needed by physicians to practice medicine in the 21st century. Graduate education efforts under Dr. Galey’s direction include the Med into Grad Program, supporting efforts of graduate programs to graduate Ph.D.s with a strong understanding of medicine. Dr. Galey’s group also administers HHMI’s Gilliam Fellowship Program, supporting individuals committed to creating a more diverse professoriate. A new program known as the HHMI International Student Dissertation Research Fellowship Program has been initiated to support international graduate students during their dissertation research. Dr. Galey and his group also developed and conducted a highly successful partnership with the NIH to integrate graduate training in the physical and computational sciences with the biomedical sciences in a program known as Interfaces. Dr. Galey holds a Ph.D. from the University of Oregon Medical School, and was a fellow of Harvard University. After a brief period in the pharmaceutical industry, he joined the University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) where he conducted research and taught medical and graduate students. Dr. Galey was active in the development of problem-based learning and other educational innovations while a faculty member at the University of New Mexico. He also held various administrative positions including associate dean for graduate studies and interim dean for research at UNMSOM before joining HHMI in 2002. David M. Hillis is the Alfred W. Roark Centennial Professor in Natural Sciences at the University of Texas, in the Section of Integrative Biology.

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89 APPENDIX C He uses a mix of molecular and computational approaches to study prob - lems in molecular evolution and biodiversity. He is also actively involved in reform of science education at the university level. Dr. Hillis led the effort to reorganize the biological sciences at the University of Texas, and then served as the first director of the new School of Biological Sciences. He currently serves as the director of the Dean’s Scholars Program for the College of Natural Sciences, as well as director of the Center for Com - putational Biology and Bioinformatics. He is a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellow, and has been elected to membership of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Kristin Jenkins (see Appendix B) John Jungck is vice president of the International Union of Biological Sciences and editor of Biology International. He is the Mead Chair of the Sciences at Beloit College and professor of biology. Dr. Jungck has spe- cialized in mathematical molecular evolution, image analysis, history and philosophy of biology, and science education reform. In 1986, he co- founded the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium, a national consortium of college and university biology educators devoted to curricular reform across the nation. It promotes quantitative, open-ended problem solving, collaborative learning, peer review, research, and civic engagement/social responsibility. He is a Fulbright Scholar (Thailand), a Mina Shaughnessy Scholar, a fellow of the National Institute of Science Education, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He teaches genetics, cellular and developmental biology, evolution and topics courses on bioinformatics, Darwin, and science and culture. Susan Kassouf, program officer, has served in different capacities at the Christian A. Johnson Endeavor Foundation since 1999, first working with the Educational Leadership Program and now working more directly with grantees. After receiving her B.A. from Hampshire College and a Ph.D. in German Studies from Cornell University, she taught on the fac- ulty at Vassar College. Jay Labov (see Appendix B) Joseph C. LaManna is the current president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). Dr. LaManna is also a profes- sor of physiology and biophysics, neurology, neurosciences, and pathol- ogy at the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio. He is the former chair of the Department of Anatomy at CWRU (1993-2008). He received his undergraduate degree in biology

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90 APPENDIX C at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, in 1971. He earned a Ph.D. in physiology and pharmacology from Duke University in Durham, NC, in 1975. He has been involved in cerebrovascular research for more than 30 years. Research conducted in his laboratory is concerned with energy demand, energy metabolism, and blood flow in the brain. The role of these mechanisms in the tissue response to pathological insults such as stroke, cardiac arrest and resuscitation, and hypoxia is being actively investigated. His most recent research has centered on cerebral angio- genesis and the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in physiological adap- tation to hypoxia, neuroprotection, and ischemic preconditioning. He has authored or co-authored more than 200 research papers and review chapters. Dr. LaManna currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Physiology, the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, and Brain Research. He is an active member of multiple scientific societies including the Society for Neuroscience (Program Committee, 2002-2005); American Physiological Society; International Society for Oxygen Trans - port to Tissues (Executive Committee, 1986-1989; 1995-1998; 2000-2003, President, 2009); AAAS; International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (Board of Directors, 2007-2011, Secretary, 2011-2017); Associa- tion of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Neuroscience Chairs (Executive Board 2002-2006); and American Association of Anatomists (Public Affairs Com- mittee Chair, 2002-2007). He served as a regular member of the NIH Neurology B-1 Study Section, and is a current member of the Brain Injury and Neurovascular Pathologies (BINP) study section. Joe Levine earned his Ph.D. from Harvard, has taught lecture and field courses at Boston College and Boston University, and currently teaches Inquiry in Rain Forests, a graduate field course for teachers through the Organization for Tropical Studies. His popular scientific writing has appeared in trade books, in magazines such as Smithsonian and Natural History, and on the web. Following a fellowship in Science Broadcast Journalism at WGBH-TV, he served as science correspondent for National Public Radio’s Morning Edition and All Things Considered, and helped launch Discovery Channel’s Discover Magazine. He served as scientific advisor to NOVA for programs including Judgment Day, and as science editor for the OMNI-MAX films Cocos: Island of Sharks and Coral Reef Adventure, and for several PBS series, including The Secret of Life and The Evolution Project. He has led seminars and professional development workshops for teachers across the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Indonesia, and Malaysia. With Kenneth Miller, he co-

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91 APPENDIX C authors Biology (Pearson Education), the most widely-used high school biology program in the United States. This book is a frequent target of anti-evolution activity because of its thorough and curriculum-wide cov - erage of evolutionary biology. It was the flashpoint for the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial and the Cobb County, GA textbook sticker case. Dr. Levine currently serves on the Board of Overseers at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, and the Board of Visitors of the Organization for Tropical Studies. Ross Nehm is an associate professor of science education and evolution, ecology and organismal biology at The Ohio State University. He received a Ph.D. in integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley, an Ed.M. in science education at Columbia University, and a B.S. in geology (paleobiology) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Major honors include a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation, an out- standing instructor award from Berkeley, and a college-wide mentoring award from the City University of New York. In 2006 he was named an Education Fellow in the Life Sciences by the National Academy of Sciences. He publishes widely on topics relating to evolution, scientific thinking, student learning, and assessment methodologies. Robert T. Pennock is professor of history and philosophy of science in Lyman Briggs College, and also holds appointments in the Philosophy Department, the Department of Computer Science, and the Ecology, Evo- lutionary Biology and Behavior Graduate Program. He is a member of and the Briggs faculty liaison to the Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Sciences. He is one of the Co-PIs of the BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, an NSF Science and Technology Center. Dr. Pennock’s research involves both experimental and philosophi- cal questions that relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science, such as the evolution of altruistic behavior, complexity, inference, and intelligence. He uses digital evolution (Avida as well as evolving neural networks) to investigate the emergence of intelligent behavior. Rather than trying to build intelligent systems from the top down, he is inter- ested in investigating how such systems evolve from the bottom up. His Evolving Intelligence (EI) group has focused on the evolution of elements of intelligent behavior, including phenotypic plasticity, short-term and associative memory, environmental information processing, purposeful movement control, and cooperation. His research in these areas has been published in numerous journals and featured in Discover, New Scientist, Science Daily, Slashdot, US News & World Report, and many other national and international periodicals. Dr. Pennock is also involved with various national initiatives to sup -

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92 APPENDIX C port undergraduate education about evolutionary biology and more gen- erally about the nature of science. He leads the NSF-funded Avida-ED project, which develops and assesses software and curricular materials to use evolutionary computation to help teach these concepts. He was an expert witness in the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School Board case that ruled that Intelligent Design creationism is not science, but sectarian religion, and that teaching it is the public schools is unconstitutional. He was the co-founder and first president of the citizens action group Michigan Citi - zens for Science. Dr. Pennock also studies the relationship of epistemic and ethical values in science. Scientific methodology itself comes with tacit norms that govern appropriate professional behavior. His work in this area deals with what he calls the scientific virtues, which is a new way to think about some issues in responsible conduct of research. He is currently writing a book on this topic. In recognition of his education and public outreach work, he was named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci - ence, a Sigma Xi National Distinguished Lecturer, and a National Associ- ate of the National Academies of Science, and has received a number of awards, including the National Center for Science Education’s Friend of Darwin Award (2003) and the American Institute of Biological Sciences Outstanding Service Award (2009). Jaclyn Reeves-Pepin is the executive director of the National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT). NABT has long been an advocate for main- taining scientific integrity in the classroom, and the teaching of evolution has been one of the association’s main tenants for more than 70 years. As the executive director, Reeves-Pepin coordinates all programs at NABT to ensure alignment with NABT’s mission to empower teachers and support students. As this relates to evolution education, Reeves-Pepin schedules speak- ers and presentations at the NABT Professional Development Conference to ensure that evolution and the teaching of evolution are major themes at this event; she provides assistance producing the evolution-themed issue of the journal, The American Biology Teacher; she assists with the NABT Evolution Education Award (sponsored by AIBS and BSCS); she composes letters and statements made on behalf of the NABT Board of Directors, including statements regarding legislation and science text- book; she interacts with teachers to help them access local and national resources to assist in the teaching of biology; and she works with partner organizations to promote evolution-based resources and opportunities to both the NABT and larger biology educator communities.

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93 APPENDIX C Judy Scotchmoor is assistant director of the University of California’s Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) in Berkeley, overseeing the museum’s education and outreach efforts. Ms. Scotchmoor received her B.S. in bio- logical sciences at UC Berkeley in 1966 and then proceeded on to a long teaching career, primarily at the middle school level. She began her career at UCMP as a volunteer in the fossil prep lab in 1993, before joining the staff the following year. Taking advantage of her K-12 experiences, she soon initiated teacher professional development workshops and curricu - lum development focusing on evolution, paleontology, the geosciences, and their intersection reflected in the biodiversity that we see today. Today she is the project coordinator of three award-winning websites: The Paleontology Portal, Understanding Evolution, and Understanding Science. She is the editor/author of three books to support K-16 teaching: Evolution: Investigating the Evidence, Learning from the Fossil Record, and Dinosaurs: The Science Behind the Stories. Ms. Scotchmoor was the recipi- ent of the Joseph T. Gregory Award for outstanding service to the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in 2004, was the recipient of the American Institute of Biological Sciences Education Award in 2006, was named an American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow in 2009, and was elected as a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences in 2011. She serves on the boards of AIBS and Impact100 Sonoma. Mark D. Schwartz is associate professor of medicine at New York Uni- versity (NYU) School of Medicine. After studying medicine at Cornell University and training in internal medicine at NYU, Dr. Schwartz was awarded a Bowen-Brooks Fellowship by the New York Academy of Medi- cine to study medical education innovation in Israel and Holland, and then completed a General Internal Medicine Fellowship at Duke Uni - versity. At NYU he was selected as a Robert Wood Johnson Generalist Physician Faculty Scholar. He has been a primary care physician in urban underserved settings for 20 years. Dr. Schwartz has studied primary care workforce issues since the 1980s and recently completed a national study of influences on student interest in internal medicine. His health services research focuses on how primary care workplace characteristics impact physician stress and burn- out and, subsequently, quality of care and medical errors. He also leads a Veterans Administration study of how educational interventions for health professionals improve patient outcomes. Since 1995, Dr. Schwartz has led NYU’s General Internal Medicine Fellowship Program and established its Master’s of Science in Medical Education program. He directs NYU’s NIH Clinical Research Training Program and leads its Master’s of Science in Clinical Investigation Pro - gram. He also directs the Fellowship in Medicine and Public Health

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94 APPENDIX C Research. NYU recently named him director of translational research education and careers in its Clinical Translational Science Institute. The Association of Clinical Research Training awarded him its Distinguished Research Educator award in 2008. In his practice, educational leader- ship, research, and scholarship, Dr. Schwartz has focused on the need to improve health and health care of vulnerable, urban poor populations. Maxine Singer attended the New York City public schools and gradu- ated from Swarthmore College (A.B., 1952, with high honors) and Yale University (Ph.D., biochemistry, 1957). She joined the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral fellow in 1956 and received a research staff appointment two years later. She was chief, Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, 1980-1987, where she led 15 research groups engaged in various biochemical investigations. She became president of the Carnegie Institution in 1988 and President Emeritus in 2002. She retains her association with the National Cancer Institute as Scientist Emeritus. At Carnegie she established (in 1989) the Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE) whose goal is to enhance learning of science and math for DC public school teachers and students. Now she works actively in several CASE projects. Dr. Singer’s research contributions ranged over several areas of nucleic acid biochemistry and molecular biology, including chromatin structure, the structure and evolution of defective viruses, and enzymes that work on DNA and its complementary molecule, RNA. Around 1960 she collaborated intensely with her NIH colleague Marshall Nirenberg in the elucidation of the genetic code. In recent years, her foremost contributions have been in studies of a large family of repeated DNA sequences called LINEs that are “jumping genes” and are interspersed many times in human DNA. Researchers elsewhere found that LINE-1 insertions into, for example, a gene whose product is required for blood clotting are associated with cases of hemophilia. She has published more than 130 scientific papers and several books on molecular genetics (with Paul Berg). Throughout her career, Dr. Singer has taken leading roles influencing and refining the nation’s science policy, often in realms having social, moral, or ethical implications. In 1975 she was one of the organizers of the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA. Among countless other roles in service to science and humankind, she was chairman of the editorial board of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1985-1988 and the chair of the Academies’ Commit- tee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy (COSEPUP) (2000-2005). She was a member, Board of Directors, Johnson & Johnson (1990-2002), and the Yale (University) Corporation, 1975-1990. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1979 and to membership in the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in 1986. In 1992 she received the National Medal of

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95 APPENDIX C Science, the nation’s highest scientific honor bestowed by the President of the United States, “for her outstanding scientific accomplishments and her deep concern for the societal responsibility of the scientist.” She was awarded the National Academy’s Public Welfare Medal in 2007. Dr. Singer served on the panel that wrote the first Science and Creation- ism document for NAS (1983-1984). She also served on the panel that did the NAS’ report entitled Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science (1998). Paul Strode teaches international baccalaureate (IB) biology at Fairview High School in Boulder, Colorado. Dr. Strode has a Ph.D. in ecology and environmental science (2004) from the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign and holds a science education master’s (1996) from the Uni - versity of Washington (Seattle). After completing a B.S. degree in biology, chemistry, and secondary education (1991) from Manchester College (IN), Dr. Strode taught biology and chemistry at Hazen High School in Renton, Washington. Dr. Strode grew up in the small college town of North Man- chester, Indiana, where he spent a lot of his free time on his bike and play- ing with friends next to and sometimes in the Eel River. His natural love of the biological sciences was fully realized in his high school freshman year in his biology class. His teacher, Harvey Underwood, was trained as a forest ecologist and had his students spend a lot of time outside col - lecting and identifying insects and leaves. Dr. Strode has no memory of learning evolutionary theory in high school or college, even though his college zoology professor had published several papers on the evolution/ creationism dichotomy. Dr. Strode also has no memory of learning how science works until he learned-by-doing in his doctorate program (after teaching high school science for eight years). He has published peer- reviewed scientific articles, middle school science textbook chapters, and a book titled Why Evolution Works (and Creationism Fails) with Matt Young. Dr. Strode was interviewed about bird migration and climate change on NPR’s “All Things Considered” (May 3, 2006) and about teaching evolu- tion on KGNU Denver/Boulder’s “How on Earth” (June 28, 2011). Gordon E. Uno (see Appendix B) Marlene Zuk received her undergraduate degree at the University of Cal- ifornia, Santa Barbara, and her Ph.D. at the University of Michigan. After doing postdoctoral work at the University of New Mexico, she joined the faculty in biology at the University of California, Riverside, where she is now a professor. Her research interests include behavioral ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Recently Dr. Zuk has become interested in how behavior can influence the rate of evolution.

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96 APPENDIX C Most of her work has used insects, although she also has studied birds. She is interested in communicating science to the public and has written three books for general audiences: Sexual Selections: What We Can and Can’t Learn About Sex from Animals, published in 2002; Riddled with Life: Friendly Worms, Ladybug Sex, and the Parasites that Make Us Who We Are, published in 2007; and Sex on Six Legs: Lessons on Life, Love, and Language from the Insect World, which was released in 2011.