at Ball. At Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) he was deputy center director and program management council chairperson, where he oversaw the development, launch, and operation of all GSFC instruments, spacecraft, and missions, and was closely involved with almost 60 missions during his NASA career, including more than 30 missions while at GSFC. At NASA Headquarters, in the Earth Science Enterprise area, he held the positions of acting associate administrator, deputy associate administrator, deputy division director, and flight program branch chief and was program manager of the TOPEX/Poseidon, NASA Scatterometer, and Radarsat programs (all international). At the NASA Wallops Flight Center, Mr. Townsend served as the SeaSat Radar Altimeter Experiment manager, an aerospace technologist, and an electronic technician apprentice. He holds a BSEE with honors from Virginia Tech. He is the recipient of two presidential rank, meritorious executive awards, two NASA Distinguished Service Medals, the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, the GSFC Robert C. Baumann Memorial Award for Mission Success, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, and the French Space Agency’s Bronze Medal. Mr. Townsend served on the NRC’s Committee on Cost Growth in NASA Earth and Space Science Missions.

THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR is the emeritus director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) and a university distinguished professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University. His research included work on Earth’s radiation budget and fundamental relationships with the climate system and incorporated some of the first results of direct solar irradiance measurements from satellites and the exchange of energy between Earth and space. His studies on the interaction of clouds, water vapor, and radiation and the general circulation formed a basis for national and international plans leading to the Global Energy and Water Experiment and other programs related to global change. In 1980, Dr. Vonder Haar spearheaded the formation of CIRA, a center for international cooperation in research and training, covering virtually all physical, economic, and societal aspects of weather and climate. CIRA was established to increase the effectiveness of atmospheric research in areas of mutual interest between Colorado State and NOAA. Dr. Vonder Haar has also served as director of the Center for Geosciences, a Department of Defense-sponsored research center that focuses on the study of weather patterns and how they affect military operations, including investigations of fog, cloud layering, cloud drift winds, and dynamics of cloud persistence as detected from satellites. Dr. Vonder Haar is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received his B.S. in aeronautics from St. Louis University, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Dr. Vonder Haar currently serves on the NRC’s Special Fields and Interdisciplinary Engineering Peer Committee. Prior NRC service includes serving as a member of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, the Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft, and the Panel on Weather Science and Applications for the 2007 decadal survey on Earth science and applications from space.


ARTHUR A. CHARO, Study Director, joined the Space Studies Board (SSB) in 1995 as a senior program officer. He has directed studies that have resulted in some 33 reports, notably the first NRC decadal survey in solar and space physics (2003) and in Earth science and applications from space (2007). Dr. Charo received his Ph.D. in physics from Duke University in 1981 and was a postdoctoral fellow in chemical physics at Harvard University from 1982 to 1985. He then pursued his interests in national security and arms control at Harvard University’s Center for Science and International Affairs, where he was a research fellow from 1985 to 1988. From 1988 to 1995, he worked as a senior analyst and study director in the International Security and Space Program in the U.S. Congress’s Office of Technology Assessment. Dr. Charo is a recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in International Security (1985-1987) and a Harvard-

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