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E NASA’s Responses to the 2007 Decadal Survey and Its April 2011 Status Update This appendix lists each of the recommendations in the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey (National Research Council, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007) and NASA’s response to the report provided to the Space Studies Board in 2009, with updates from NASA given to the Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program at its first meeting on April 28, 2011. The text in Table E.1 is taken verbatim from the three documents. Page numbers following each statement refer to the location of the statement in the document from which it came. 83
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84 EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE TABLE E.1 Recommendations from the 2007 Decadal Survey and NASA Responses in 2009 and 2011 Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b Recommendation: The U.S. The committee predicated its schedules The decadal survey predicated its schedules government, working in concert and program on a NASA ESD budget and program on a NASA ESD budget that with the private sector, academe, the that reached the level of $2B/year reached the level of $2 billion/year [FY2006 public, and its international partners, (approximately equal to the FY2000 level) $] in FY2010 (approximately equal to the should renew its investment in in 2010. The Obama administration’s FY2000 level). Earth-observing systems and restore FY2010 budget for NASA ESD is its leadership in Earth science and $1.405B exclusive of carry-over funds ESD has focused resources on the applications. (p. 2) from the 2009 American Recovery and development and rapid launch of Reinvestment Act), increasing steadily by Foundational Missions (pre-decadal survey: about $50M/year thereafter. (p. 2) OSTM, OCO, Glory, NPP, LDCM, GPM and added decadal survey-recommended actions, including serving in international leadership/coordination roles. (p. 3) Between 2006 and the end of the decade, While it is true that 14 of the 15 At present (April 2011)—of the 13 operating the number of operating missions will operating NASA research missions are or missions at the time of the decadal survey: decrease dramatically, and the number soon (within a year) will be beyond their — 12 missions continue to operate of operating sensors and instruments design lives—and in some cases (e.g., substantially as designed on NASA spacecraft, most of which QuikSCAT) have been operating for more — ICESAT-1 was terminated owing to laser are well past their nominal lifetimes, than 3 times their design lives, the 2009 failure (beyond design life) will decrease by some 40 percent (see Senior Review assessed the technical — uikSCAT operates, but not in wind mode Q Figures ES.1 and ES.2). . . . Among the status of each mission and noted that (antenna; beyond design life) many measurements expected to cease only ICESAT-1 was expected to become — Cloudsat is experiencing significant over the next few years, the committee scientifically useless prior to 2012. The battery issues (beyond design life) has identified several that are providing decadal survey committee observation — GRACE is experiencing battery issues critical information now and that need to is valid, however, in that many of these (beyond design life) be sustained into the next decade—both satellites in extended mission have — Landsat-7 quality degraded (beyond to continue important time series and suffered partial failures in redundant design life) to provide the foundation necessary for systems, and are thus down to single- — 2011 Sr. Review is ongoing and will report the recommended future observations. string operations. (p. 2) out in June, 2011 These include measurements of total — OSTM/Jason-2 successfully launched and solar irradiance and Earth radiation and operating vector sea-surface winds; limb sounding — OCO, Glory launch vehicle failures (p. 5) of ozone profiles; and temperature and water vapor soundings from geostationary and polar orbits. (p. 3) Recommendation: NOAA should restore several key climate, environmental, and weather observation capabilities to its planned NPOESS and GOES-R missions, namely:
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APPENDIX E 85 TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b • Measurements of ocean vector NOAA, with NASA reimbursable support NOAA, with NASA reimbursable support winds and all-weather sea-surface (and starting in FY2010, NASA co- has engaged in detailed design studies temperatures descoped from the funding) has engaged in detailed design and international negotiations with JAXA NPOESS C1 launch should be restored studies and international negotiations to provide a vector wind measurement to provide continuity until the with JAXA to provide a vector wind capability (dual-frequency scatterometer) CMIS replacement is operational on measurement capability (dual-frequency to fly on the JAXA GCOM-W2 mission, NPOESS C2 and higher-quality active scatterometer) to fly on the JAXA scheduled to launch NET 2015. scatterometer measurements (from GCOM-W2 mission, scheduled to launch XOVWM, described in Table ES.1) Net 2015. NOAA, with communication In January 2011, NOAA informed NASA can be undertaken later in the next with NASA, is working with JAXA to that it would not be able to support decade. (p. 5) negotiate near-real-time provision continued studies or future implementation by JAXA of microwave radiometer of a scatterometer, but that NOAA would measurements from the AMSR-Follow-On welcome NASA provision of NRT data from a instruments on GCOM-W1 (11/2011 to research-based instrument. NASA discussions 3/2012 LRD) and GCOM-W2, to continue are ongoing with OSTP and OMB. the availability to the United States of all-weather SST measurements such as NASA and NOAA collaborate in joint those initiated by the AMSR-E instrument discussions with ISRO for access to, and on Aqua. The same negotiations cover refinements of, Oceansat-2 scatterometer near-real-time access to the vector and ocean color data. (p. 38) wind measurements from a NOAA- supplied Dual-Frequency Scatterometer instrument for GCOM-W2. (p. 3) • The limb sounding capability of the NOAA and NASA co-funded the NOAA and NASA co-funded the restoration Ozone Monitoring and Profiling Suite restoration of limb-sounding capability of limb-sounding capability to the OMPS (OMPS) on NPOESS should be restored. to the OMPS instrument package on instrument package on NPP, and this has (p. 5) NPP, and this has been completed. been completed. Ozone profiling through Ozone profiling through limb-sounding limb-sounding capability for JPSS remains an capability for NPOESS remains an open open issue for NOAA. (p. 39) issue for NOAA. (p. 3) The committee also recommends that NOAA: • Ensure the continuity of measurements of Earth’s radiation budget (ERB) and total solar irradiance ( TSI) through the period when the NPOESS spacecraft will be in orbit by: —Incorporating on the NPOESS NOAA reimbursable funding has been NOAA reimbursable funding has been used Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft used by NASA to refurbish, test, and by NASA to refurbish, test, and integrate the the existing “spare” CERES integrate the CERES FM-5 spare unit onto CERES FM-5 spare unit onto NPP. This task instrument, and, if possible, a TSI NPP. This task was completed less than was completed in less than 18 months after sensor. (p. 5) 18 months after the decision to proceed. ATP. A TSI capability is not thought to be A TSI capability is not needed on NPP, needed on NPP, as the NASA Glory Mission as the NASA Glory mission, now due to carried a state-of-the-art TIM instrument, and launch NLT 11/2010 carries a state-of-the- the 2009 NASA ESD Senior Review extended art Total Irradiance Monitor instrument, the ongoing SORCE mission (ACRIMSAT was and the recent NASA ESD Senior Review also conditionally extended). (p. 40) extended the ongoing SORCE mission (ACRIMSAT was also conditionally extended). (p. 3) continues
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86 EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b —Incorporating these or similar NOAA reimbursable funding has recently NOAA reimbursable funding has recently instruments on the NPOESS been made available to NASA for been made available to NASA for spacecraft that will follow NPP, or construction of the CERES FM-6 and TSIS construction of the CERES FM-6 and TSIS ensuring that measurements of instruments for flight on the NPOESS C-1 instruments for flight on TBD missions. (p. 40) TSI and ERB are obtained by other mission. (p. 4) means. (p. 5) • Develop a strategy to restore NASA is not aware of NOAA plans to NOAA has not approached NASA with the previously planned capability develop these capabilities. (p. 4) any plans for implementing a flight unit to make high-temporal- and high- based on the existing GIFTS Engineering vertical-resolution measurements of Development Unit, or any other approach. temperature and water vapor from NASA has provided written statements of geosynchronous orbit. (p. 5) its willingness to consider a proposal for a Space Act agreement to enable further development of the GIFTS EDU. (p. 41) The high-temporal- and high-vertical- resolution measurements of temperature and water vapor from geosynchronous orbit were originally to be delivered by the Hyperspectral Environmental Sensor (HES) on the GOES-R spacecraft. Recognizing the technological challenges and accompanying potential for growth in acquisition costs for HES, the committee recommends consideration of the following approaches: • Working with NASA, complete NOAA has not approached NASA with NOAA has not approached NASA with the GIFTS instrument, deliver it to any plans or discussions of implementing any plans for implementing a flight unit orbit via a cost-effective launch and a flight unit based on the existing based on the existing GIFTS Engineering spacecraft opportunity, and evaluate GIFTS Engineering Development Unit Development Unit, or any other approach. its potential to be a prototype for the (EDU), or any other approach. NASA NASA has provided written statements of HES instrument. (p. 6) has provided written statements of its its willingness to consider a proposal for willingness to consider a proposal for a a Space Act agreement to enable further Space Act agreement to enable further development of the GIFTS EDU. (p. 41) development of the GIFTS EDU. (p. 4) • Extend the HES study contracts NASA is not aware of the status of any NASA is not aware of the status of any NOAA focusing on cost-effective approaches NOAA continuations of the HES study continuations of the HES study contracts. to achieving essential sounding contracts. (p. 4) (p. 41) capabilities to be flown in the GOES-R time frame. (p. 6) Recommendation: NASA should ensure continuity of measurements of precipitation and land cover by:
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APPENDIX E 87 TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b Launching the GPM mission in or GPM continues on track for a launch of GPM continues on track for a launch of the before 2012. (p. 6) the GPM Core mission, in collaboration GPM Core mission, in collaboration with with JAXA (who provides the HII-A L/V JAXA, in 7/2013. GPM passed its KDP-C in and the Dual-Frequency Precipitation 12/2009. Cost increases and 70% budgeting Radar), in 7/2013. GPM will complete its requirements caused the planned GPM mission CDR [Critical Design Review] and Low Inclination Orbiter (LIO) mission to be [Key Decision Point] KDP-C reviews in put on hold, pending negotiations with September, 2009. Cost increases and 70% international partners (NASA continued budgeting requirements have caused to budget for and develop the GMI-2 the planned GPM Low Inclination Orbiter instrument, accommodation costs, data (LIO) mission to be put on hold, pending downlink, and science). negotiations with international partners. However, the NASA budget DOES The President’s FY2012 budget directs continue to include procurement of the termination of all GPM LOI activities. (p. 7) second GMI-2 radiometer instrument (the sole science instrument planned for LIO), accommodation costs should a partner spacecraft and launch be identified, and all necessary space and ground telemetry and science funding to cover a replacement LIO mission. (pp. 4-5) • Securing before 2012 a LDCM continues toward a 12/2012 LRD, LDCM continues on-track toward a 12/2012 replacement for collection of Landsat carrying both the OLI (30m resolution LRD, carrying both the OLI and a Thermal 7 data. (p. 6) multispectral instrument) and a QWIPS Infrared Sensor (“TIRS”; 120 m-resolution— technology Thermal Infrared Sensor TIRS was mandated but not funded by The committee also recommends that (“TIRS”; 120 m-resolution). Instrument Congress, leading to ~$150 million hit to the NASA continue to seek cost-effective, PDRs have been successfully completed; ESD core program). LDCM passed its KDP-C innovative means for obtaining Mission PDR was held in July 2009 in December, 2009. TIRS is an in-house GSFC information on land cover change. in preparation for KDP-C review in development. (p. 6) November. OLI, s/c, and launch vehicle contracts are in place. TIRS is an in- Residual mission development risk is being house GSFC implementation. USGS is focused on TIRS, to ensure a 12/2012 launch facing significant budget challenges of LDCM with at least a full baseline OLI for the LDCM Mission Operations mission. Significant launch vehicle (Atlas-V) Element contract/development (NASA penalties (up to ~$150 million) will be procurement, using reimbursable funding incurred should the launch be delayed by from USGS). (p. 5) NASA. NASA continues to work with USGS to accommodate USGS funding issues for the LDCM Mission Operations Element contract/ development (MOE is a NASA procurement, using reimbursable funding from USGS). SMD/JASD working with USGS for reimbursable Landsat 9 program. (p. 8) continues
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88 EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b NASA concept, pre-formulation, and Recommendation: In addition to NASA concept and formulation studies formulation studies indicate that the implementing the re-baselined indicate that the decadal survey mission decadal survey’s mission cost estimates were NPOESS and GOES program and cost estimates are understated by understated by factors of 2-6. (p. 9) completing research missions factors of 2-6 (for instance, CLARREO [10 currently in development, NASA and instruments on 3 separate spacecraft] NOAA should undertake the set of was estimated by the survey at a total 17 missions recommended in Tables mission cost of $200 million, vs. ~$950 ES.1 and ES.2 comprising low-cost million in the NASA pre-formulation (<$300 million), medium-cost ($300 studies). NASA faces considerable million to $600 million), and large- uncertainty in the availability of medium- cost ($600 million to $900 million) class launch vehicles beyond 2011 due missions and phased appropriately to the retirement of the Delta-II. The over the next decade. Larger, facility- availability of new commercial launch class (>$1 billion) missions are not vehicles in this class will influence recommended. As part of this strategy: the implementation of future mission (p. 8) architectures. (p. 5) Recommendations to NOAA. Note discussion NOAA should transition to operations Recommendations to NOAA. Note above on CERES and scatterometer three research observations. These discussion above on CERES and capabilities being planned or funded by are vector sea-surface winds; GPS scatterometer capabilities being planned NOAA for JPSS. radio occultation temperature, water or funded by NOAA for NPOESS C-1. vapor, and electron density soundings; NOAA international discussions regarding NOAA international discussions regarding and total solar irradiance (restored GPSRO are in an early stage. (p. 5) GPSRO are in an early stage. (p. 42) to NPOESS). Approaches to these transitions are provided through the recommended XOVWM, GPSRO, and CLARREO missions listed in Table ES.1. (p. 8) NASA should implement a set of 15 SMAP entered formulation in 9/2008; NASA has NOT manifested a GPS receiver on missions phased over the next decade. ICESat-2 will enter formulation in late every LEO mission. (p. 10) All of the appropriate low Earth orbit 2009. Competitive science teams have (LEO) missions should include a Global been solicited (through ROSES) and Positioning System (GPS) receiver to selected for both SMAP and ICESAT-2 augment operational measurements in late summer 2008. Budgetary-driven of temperature and water vapor. The LRDs for SMAP and ICESAT-2 are 2014 missions and their specifications are and 2015, respectively. Strong (>$10 listed in Table ES.2. (p. 8) million/year) ongoing pre-formulation science and technical studies are being conducted for DESDynI and CLARREO; in March, 2009, after nearly a year of study, the decision was made by ESD to implement DESDynI as 2 spacecraft (a radar and a lidar), to launch within 1 year of each other. Budgetary-driven LRDs for CLARREO and DESDynI are 2019-2020 (for both). Community and international workshops have been held (often multiple workshops) for all 5 Tier-2 missions (SWOT, HyspIRI, ASCENDS, ACE, Geo-CAPE); early pre-formulation studies are funded at ~$1-2 million/year for each mission in FY2010. (p. 6)
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APPENDIX E 89 TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b Recommendation: U.S. civil space agencies should aggressively pursue technology development that supports the missions recommended in Tables ES.1 and ES.2; plan for transitions to continue demonstrably useful research observations on a sustained, or operational, basis; and foster innovative space-based concepts. In particular: (p. 12) • NASA should increase investment NASA’s competitive Earth Science NASA’s competitive Earth Science in both mission-focused and cross- Technology Office’s program has Technology Office’s program has been cutting technology development been focused on the needs of the 15 focused on the 15 identified NASA decadal to decrease technical risk in the identified NASA decadal survey missions survey missions since ROSES 2008. NASA recommended missions and promote since ROSES 2008. AT PRESENT (not has funded over 70 new, competitively cost reduction across multiple counting previous ESTO projects), NASA selected projects that support the survey missions. Early technology-focused is funding over twenty investments in missions. These include advanced remote investments through extended mission technology development that support sensing instrument developments such as Phase A studies are essential. (p. 12) the Tier 2 survey missions. These include lidars to measure carbon dioxide, thermal advanced remote sensing instrument spectrometers to measure minerals and developments such as lidars to measure water resources, an interferometric synthetic carbon dioxide, thermal spectrometers to aperture radar to measure ocean topography, measure minerals and water resources, a radiometer to measure carbon monoxide, a an interferometric synthetic aperture Fourier transform spectrometer to measure radar to measure ocean topography, a trace gases, a polarimetric aerosol imager, radiometer to measure carbon monoxide, a cloud profiling radar, and an ocean color a Fourier transform spectrometer to radiometer. measure trace gases, a polarimetric aerosol imager, a cloud profiling radar, There are also many component and an ocean color radiometer. There technologies funded, such as lightweight, are also many component technologies deployable telescopes and antennas, optical funded, such as lightweight, deployable receivers and detectors, and radio frequency telescopes and antennas, optical receivers. receivers and detectors, and radio frequency receivers. A portion of the FY2009 ARRA/Stimulus funding for ESD was specifically set aside to A portion of the FY2009 ARRA/Stimulus augment support for competitively selected funding for ESD was specifically set aside Earth Science Technology projects. to augment support for competitively selected Earth Science Technology Upon publication of the decadal survey in 2007, ESTO investments already supported projects. Specific investments by mission all 18 of the recommended mission are shown in Table 1. (p. 6) concepts. Since then, ESTO has awarded 74 additional technology projects representing an investment of over $172 million directly related to the Earth science priorities outlined by the decadal survey. (pp. 14-15) continues
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90 EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b • To restore more frequent launch A Venture-class line for regularly selected, A “3-strand” Venture-class line for regularly opportunities and to facilitate the competitively selected, PI-led, science- selected, competitively selected, PI-led, demonstration of innovative ideas and driven, cost- and schedule-constrained science-driven, cost- and schedule- higher-risk technologies, NASA should investigations has been established constrained investigations has been create a new Venture class of low-cost within the Earth System Science established. (p. 43) research and application missions Pathfinder program. The first solicitation, (~$100 million to $200 million). These for airborne studies (up to 4 complete (See pp. 17-19 of Freilich’s presentation for missions should focus on fostering investigations expected to be selected, more on Earth Venture) revolutionary innovation and on each up to $30 million) was released on training future leaders of space-based 10 July 2009, with selections and funding Earth science and applications. (p. 12) expected in Q1 of CY2010. [Biennial] solicitations are budgeted and expected, alternating between orbital and suborbital (airborne) investigations. The next solicitation, expected to be released in summer 2011, will call for instruments to fly on spaceborne Missions of Opportunity (up to 2 proposals expected to be selected, in the $80 million to $100 million class). (pp. 7-8) • NOAA should increase investment This is a recommendation to NOAA. This is a recommendation to NOAA. in identifying and facilitating the NOAA has identified NOAA scientific and NOAA has identified NOAA scientific transition of demonstrably useful engineering points-of-contact for each and engineering POCs for each new research observations to operational new NASA decadal survey mission. The NASA decadal survey mission. Starting in use. (p. 12) president’s FY2010 budget request for FY2011, NOAA received funding to initiate the Department of Commerce includes development of Jason-3 in partnership NOAA funding to initiate development with EUMETSAT, with CNES and NASA as of Jason-3 in partnership with EUMETSAT junior partners. Until passage of the FY2011 and ESA. As noted above, NOAA is Full-year CR, NOAA was actively negotiating actively negotiating with JAXA for with JAXA for provision of a scatterometer provision of a scatterometer for flight on for flight on GCOM-W2 (with NASA technical GCOM-W2. (p. 8) support); however, this is no longer being pursued by NOAA (although being considered to be taken up by NASA). (p. 43) The committee endorses the Technical challenges, Congressional With the release of the President’s FY2011 recommendation of a 2006 National interest and directed scope changes (e.g., Budget Request, NASA was given the explicit Research Council report that stated, addition of thermal infrared capability mandate to examine possible climate “NASA/SMD [Science Mission to LDCM, refurbishment of the Earth continuity missions and include them in the Directorate] should develop a science observing instruments on DSCOVR, Climate Initiative submitted by NASA ESD to strategy for obtaining long-term, mandated NASA co-funding with NOAA OSTP, USGCRP, and OMB. continuous, stable observations of the of future scatterometer mission studies), Earth system that are distinct from international/interagency partner SAGE-III (2015), OCO-3 (2015), GRACE-FO observations to meet requirements by challenges (e.g., Aquarius and NPP), and (2016), and PACE (2019-2020) were identified NOAA in support of numerical weather budgetary limitations constrain ESD to and included as Climate Continuity Missions. prediction.” (p. 13) focus on development and expeditious (p. 20) launch of the 5 Foundational missions (Glory, Aquarius, NPP, LDCM, GPM), initiation of the Tier-1 decadal survey missions (SMAP, ICESAT-2, CLARREO, and DESDynI), and science/technology studies for Tier-2 and Tier-3 decadal survey missions. (p. 8)
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APPENDIX E 91 TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b Recommendation: The Office of This is a recommendation to OSTP. This is a recommendation to OSTP. Science and Technology Policy, in NASA has been an active collaborator collaboration with the relevant in discussions and analyses of NPOESS NASA was an active collaborator in agencies and in consultation with restructuring scenarios. NASA ESD discussions and analyses of NPOESS the scientific community, should has provided briefs to OSTP and OMB, restructuring scenarios; NASA/JASD develop and implement a plan for and stands ready to support the implements JPSS, Climate Sensors, Jason-3 achieving and sustaining global Administration in its efforts to implement (to transfer) for NOAA, and Landsat-9 (to Earth observations. This plan should cross-agency coordination mechanisms come) for USGS. recognize the complexity of differing to develop and operate an efficient, agency roles, responsibilities, and predictable, high-quality, spaceborne NASA ESD provides leadership (Freilich Vice- capabilities as well as the lessons from environmental observing system for Chair 2010-, Kaye acting head 2009-2010 ) to implementation of the Landsat, EOS, sustained measurements in support of USGCRP; NASA ESD provides 49% of the total and NPOESS programs. (p. 14) short-term predictions, research, and USGCRP distributed cost budget. (p. 21) climate science. (p. 8) Recommendation: Earth system No additional actions taken at this No additional actions taken at this time. NASA observations should be accompanied time. NASA continues to fund the continues to fund the Socioeconomic Data by a complementary system of Socioeconomic Data and Applications and Applications Center (SEDAC) operated observations of human activities and Center (SEDAC) operated by the by the Center for International Earth Science their effects on Earth. (p. 14) Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), a unit of the Information Network (CIESIN), a unit Earth Institute at Columbia University based of the Earth Institute at Columbia at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in University based at Lamont-Doherty Palisades, New York. SEDAC’s missions are to Earth Observatory in Palisades, New synthesize Earth science and socioeconomic York. SEDAC’s missions are to synthesize data and information in ways useful to a Earth science and socioeconomic data wide range of decision makers and other and information in ways useful to a applied users, and to provide an “Information wide range of decision makers and Gateway” between the socioeconomic and other applied users, and to provide an Earth science data and information domains. “Information Gateway” between the NASA continues to fund the Land Cover/Land socioeconomic and Earth science data Use Change (LCLUC) program of competitively and information domains. (p. 9) selected investigations to understand the consequences of land cover/land use change on the Ecosystem, using remotely sensed data. (p. 22) Recommendation: Socioeconomic In addition to holding open community In addition to holding open community factors should be considered in the workshops in the early stages of mission workshops in the early stages of mission planning and implementation of conceptualization, socioeconomic conceptualization and applications-focused Earth observation missions and in and related information and needs workshops later in mission development developing an Earth knowledge and are provided throughout mission life, socioeconomic and related information information system. (p. 14) development by active representatives and needs are provided throughout mission of the Earth Science Division’s Applied development by active representatives of Science Program. For the decadal survey the Earth Science Division Applied Science missions, an Applied Sciences Program Program. For the decadal survey missions, point-of-contact has been assigned an Applied Sciences HQ POC has been to each mission to ensure two-way assigned to each mission to ensure two-way communications between the user and communications between the user and developer communities at all stages, developer communities at all stages, including including from the start of mission from the start of mission formulation. (p. 23) formulation. (p. 9) continues
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92 92 EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b Recommendation: Critical surface- NASA/ESD continues to sustain and NASA/ESD continues to sustain and expand based (land and ocean) and upper- expand ground-based observation ground-based observation networks, air atmospheric sounding networks networks, such as AERONET, SLR, VLBI, such as Aeronet, SLR, VLBI, and GNSS. New should be sustained and enhanced as and GNSS. All of the latter are topics of international agreements are continuously necessary to satisfy climate and other focused working groups instituted by sought and approved in all in-situ network Earth science needs in addition to NASA with the Chinese National Space areas to expand the geographical coverage weather forecasting and prediction. Agency; similarly, new international of networks and increase their quality. (p. 14) agreements are continuously sought and approved in all in-situ network areas In conjunction with planned OCO-2 and to expand the geographical coverage ongoing GOSAT validations, NASA added 3 of networks and increase their quality. sites to the international TCCON network of In conjunction with planned OCO and ground-based calibrated Fourier Transform GOSAT validations, NASA has added 3 Spectrometers. sites to the international TCCON network of ground-based calibrated Fourier An update of the Geodetic Network was Transform Spectrometers. (p. 9) included specifically as part of the Climate Initiative. (p. 24) Recommendation: To facilitate the ESD has expanded the airborne program ESD has expanded the airborne program synthesis of scientific data and in many ways over the last 3 years, and over the last 3 years, and continues to discovery into coherent and timely continues to revitalize and expand revitalize and expand the capabilities in information for end users, NASA the capabilities in close collaboration close collaboration with the research and should support Earth science research with the research and applications applications communities. via suborbital platforms: airborne communities. Significant additional programs, which have suffered resources have been added to the Significant resources have been added substantial diminution, should be airborne science program to cover to the airborne science program to cover restored, and unmanned aerial vehicle maintenance and routine operations maintenance and routine operations of the technology should be increasingly of the airborne fleet (routine activities airborne fleet (previously funded directly factored into the nation’s strategic which in many cases had to be funded from the research science budget). Formal plan for Earth science. (p. 14) directly from the research science coordination and associated documentation budget). A majority of the airborne have resulted in more standard, more science fleet has been collocated at Site straightforward interface definitions/ 9 in Palmdale, facilitating access to the requirements for contributed instruments, airborne platforms by non-NASA (and allowing easier and platform-independent non-citizen) students and researchers. transfers and integrations. Coordination Formal coordination and associated with the FAA has allowed expanded use documentation have resulted in of UAS platforms in the national airspace, more standard, more straightforward contributing to the now-routine use of NASA interface definitions/requirements for UAS and instrumentation in support of contributed instruments, allowing easier wildfire containment efforts on both coasts. and platform-independent transfers In a joint effort between NASA and Northrop and integrations. Coordination with the Grumman, 2 Global Hawk (Predator) UASs FAA has allowed much-expanded use of have been added to the research fleet, vastly UAS platforms in the national airspace, expanding the long-duration, heavy-lift, contributing to the now-routine use high-altitude capabilities available to NASA of NASA UAS and instrumentation in researchers. In addition to the airborne support of wildfire containment efforts Venture-class solicitation discussed above, on both coasts. In a joint effort between ESD has supported twice-yearly ICE Bridge NASA and Northrop Grumman, 2 Global airborne campaigns in both the Arctic Hawk (Predator) UASs have been added and Antarctic to span the gap between to the research fleet, vastly expanding the the demise of ICESAT-1 and the launch of long-duration, heavy-lift, high-altitude ICESAT-2. (p. 25) capabilities available to NASA researchers.
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APPENDIX E 93 TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b In addition to the airborne Venture-class solicitation discussed above, ESD has begun twice-yearly ICE Bridge airborne campaigns in both the Arctic and Antarctic to span the gap between the expected demise of ICESAT-1 and the launch of ICESAT-2. Airborne science flight hours increased more than 60% in 2008 over 2007, with additional increases on track this year. (p. 10) Recommendations: • Teams of experts should be formed NASA continues to support and NASA continues to support and fund to consider assimilation of data from fund multiagency, multi-institution multiagency, multi-institution assimilation multiple sensors and all sources, assimilation efforts including the Joint efforts including the Joint Center for Satellite including commercial providers and Center for Satellite Data Assimilation Data Assimilation (JCSDA), the Short-Term international partners. (p. 15) (JCSDA), the Short-Term Prediction and Prediction and Research Transition Center Research Transition Center (SPoRT) to (SPoRT) to transition unique observations transition unique observations and and research capabilities to the operational research capabilities to the operational weather community to improve short-term weather community to improve forecasts on a regional scale, the MERRA short-term forecasts on a regional (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for scale, the massive MERRA (Modern Era Research and Applications) reanalysis project Retrospective-Analysis for Research at the Global Modeling and Assimilation and Applications) reanalysis project at Office (GMAO), and a variety of similar the Global Modeling and Assimilation assimilation and modeling activities in Office (GMAO), and a variety of similar association with international initiatives such assimilation and modeling activities in as GODAE (Global Ocean Data Assimilation association with international initiatives Office). NASA is preparing for a major role in such as GODAE (Global Ocean Data the upcoming IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Assimilation Office). NASA is preparing modeling and analysis effort. (p. 30) for a major role in the upcoming IPCC Fifth Assessment Report modeling and analysis effort. (p. 10) • NOAA, working with the This is a recommendation to NOAA. This is a recommendation to NOAA. Climate Change Science Program (p. 10) (p. 30) and the international Group on Earth Observations, should create a climate data and information system to meet the challenge of ensuring the production, distribution, and stewardship of high-accuracy climate records from NPOESS and other relevant observational platforms. (p. 15) continues
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94 94 EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b • As new Earth observation missions Data processing, archive, and distribution Data processing, archive, and distribution are developed, early attention should activities are budgeted fully from activities are budgeted fully from the start in be given to developing the requisite the start in all NASA flight missions, all decadal survey missions. Approximately data processing and distribution specifically including the identified 9% of the entire ESD annual budget is system, and data archive. Distribution decadal survey missions. Approximately focused specifically on multi-mission of data should be free or at low cost 11% of the entire ESD annual budget operations (EOSDIS and related information to users, and provided in an easily is focused specifically on multi-mission systems) activities. NASA continues to accessible manner. (p. 15) operations (EOSDIS and related maintain a free and open distribution policy information systems) activities. NASA for all mission data, with no period of priority. continues to maintain a free and open (p. 31) distribution policy for all mission data, with no period of priority. (p. 11) • NASA should increase support ESD continues to fund vigorous, ESD continues to fund competitively for its research and analysis (R&A) competitively selected R&A and Applied selected R&A and Applied Sciences programs program to a level commensurate with Sciences programs to advance Earth to advance Earth System science; develop its ongoing and planned missions. System science, develop applications, applications, synthesize and combine Further, in light of the need for a synthesize and combine measurements measurements from multiple spaceborne healthy R&A program that is not from multiple spaceborne missions missions as well as in situ observations, and mission-specific, as well as the need for as well as in situ observations, and to to identify the next generation of tractable, mission-specific R&A, NASA’s space- identify the next generation of tractable, important Earth science problems that are based missions should have adequate important Earth science problems amenable to spaceborne data acquisition. R&A lines within each mission that are amenable to spaceborne data Accounting for just under half of the total budget as well as mission-specific acquisition. Accounting for just under half ESD budget, these research and related operations and data analysis. These of the total ESD budget, these research supporting activities (such as data systems) R&A lines should be protected within and related supporting activities (such as include science budgets for mission science the missions and not used simply as data systems) include science budgets for teams as well as the R&A portion of the mission reserves to cover cost growth mission science teams as well as the R&A budget structure. Mission science team lines on the hardware side. (p. 15) portion of the budget structure. Mission are monitored by HQ Program Scientists and science team lines are monitored by HQ are protected from technical challenges and Program Scientists and are “fenced” to associated cost increases during mission protect them from technical challenges development. (p. 32) and associated cost increases during mission development. (p. 11) • NASA, NOAA, and USGS should In addition to the assimilation-related In addition to the assimilation-related increase their support for Earth system activities discussed above, a portion of activities discussed above, a portion of modeling, including provision of the ARRA/Stimulus funding has been set the Stimulus funding has been set aside high-performance computing facilities aside for modeling-specific work. ROSES for modeling-specific work. ROSES 2008 and support for scientists working 2008 included a major solicitation for the included a major solicitation for the in the areas of modeling and data Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP) Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction activity assimilation. (p. 15) activity that supports observation driven that supports observation driven modeling modeling that integrates the research that integrates the research activities within activities within the R&A element. In the R&A element. In addition to community addition to community grants, the grants, the MAP element supports basic MAP element supports basic modeling modeling infrastructure as well as research infrastructure as well as research activities at GISS, GMAO, and the Global activities at Goddard Institute for Space Modeling Initiative (Chemical Transport Studies, the NASA Goddard Global Modeling). Modeling and Assimilation Office, and the Global Modeling Initiative (Chemical Transport Modeling)
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APPENDIX E 95 TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b Specific foci of the solicitation included The solicitation included Integrated studies Integrated studies of weather and of weather and climate emphasizing the role climate emphasizing the role of weather of weather in the climate system through in the climate system through the use the use of multiparameter observations of multiparameter observations from from satellites to evaluate and characterize satellites to evaluate and characterize (i.e., validate) model simulations, coupled (i.e., validate) model simulations, coupled model investigations designed to examine model investigations designed to the representation of Earth system processes examine the representation of Earth spanning a continuum of time and space system processes spanning a continuum scales associated with weather and climate, of time and space scales associated development of climate information from with weather and climate, development numerical simulations that can be applied of climate information from numerical at spatial and temporal scales suitable for simulations that can be applied at spatial increasing society’s resilience to climate and temporal scales suitable for increasing change and development of climate society’s resilience to climate change change adaptation strategies, development and development of climate change of innovative ways to apply Observation adaptation strategies, development of System Simulation Experiments to climate innovative ways to apply Observation prediction and the future design of space- System Simulation Experiments to based observing systems, investigations climate prediction and the future design using the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis of space-based observing systems, for Research and Applications (MERRA) investigations using the Modern Era reanalysis data, Ice Sheet Modeling to Retrospective- analysis for Research and incorporate ice streams into the interior Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data, Ice ice sheet with particular emphasis on the Sheet Modeling to incorporate ice streams Greenland outflow glaciers and their coupling into the interior ice sheet with particular with the interior, Atmospheric Chemistry emphasis on the Greenland outflow Hindcast investigations forcing Chemistry glaciers and their coupling with the and Transport Models (CTMs) with multiyear interior, Atmospheric Chemistry Hindcast meteorological fields derived from global investigations forcing Chemistry and reanalysis systems, and Advanced Model Transport Models (CTMs) with multiyear Dynamics and Numerics investigations of meteorological fields derived from global grids and fluid dynamical formulations that reanalysis systems, and Advanced Model support high resolution simulation of the Dynamics and Numerics investigations Earth’s climate. of grids and fluid dynamical formulations that support high resolution simulation of The call resulted in 52 investigations being the Earth’s climate. selected, most for a period of 4 years. (pp. 34-35) The call resulted in 52 investigations being selected, most for a period of 4 years. (p. 12) Recommendation: A formal No formal, comprehensive interagency No formal, comprehensive interagency interagency planning and review process focused on the decadal survey process focused on the decadal survey has process should be put into place that has been put into place. Details of been put into place. focuses on effectively implementing ongoing relevant activities are discussed the recommendations made in the at the regular (quarterly) NASA-NOAA Details of ongoing relevant activities are present decadal survey report and Roundtable meetings co-chaired by ESD discussed at the regular (quarterly) NASA- sustaining and building an Earth and NESDIS. (p. 12) NOAA Roundtable/Joint Working Group knowledge and information system for meetings co-chaired by ESD and NESDIS. the next decade and beyond. (p. 15) ESD, JASD, and USGS hold similar periodic bilateral coordination meetings (~3/year). (p. 36) continues
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96 96 EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE TABLE E.1 Continued Decadal Survey Recommendation NASA’s Response (2009)a NASA Update (2011)b Recommendation: NASA, NOAA, and ESD continues to support a vigorous ESD continues to support a vigorous USGS should pursue innovative Education and Public Outreach Education and Public Outreach program, approaches to educate and train program, including annual competitive including annual competitive solicitations scientists and users of Earth solicitations for Earth System Science for Earth System Science Fellowships, a observations and applications. A Fellowships, a New Investigator New Investigator Program, and the GLOBE particularly important role is to Program, and the GLOBE program. These program. These activities complement assist educators in inspiring and activities complement other NASA-wide other NASA-wide educational activities training students in the use of Earth educational activities at the Directorate at the Directorate and Agency levels, observations and the information and Agency levels, with which ESD with which ESD coordinates closely. The derived from them. (p. 15) coordinates closely. The schedule- schedule-constrained Venture-Class program constrained Venture-Class program described above specifically enables training described above specifically enables opportunities for students and post-doctoral training opportunities for students researchers and the development and test of and post-doctoral researchers and the cutting-edge, innovative measurement and development and test of cutting-edge, analysis techniques. (p. 37) innovative measurement and analysis techniques. (p. 13) NOTE: Tables and figures referred to are not reprinted here. Edward J. Weiler, Associate Administrator, NASA Science Mission Directorate, letter to Charles F. Kennel, Chair, Space Studies Board, a National Research Council, dated October 25, 2009. Michael Freilich, Director, NASA Earth Science Division, “Earth Science Division Decadal Survey Status,” presentation to the b Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program, April 27, 2011.