tives and to facilitate the development of new ones. Cross-agency efforts by the federal statistical agencies to examine potential linkage opportunities might accelerate developments in this area.

An alternative to combining data sets quantitatively for statistical analysis is the qualitative synthesis of data found in “public health triangulation,” “an iterative process in which key questions and hypotheses that potentially explain them are formulated, examined and reexamined as additional data become available” (Rutherford et al., 2010, p. 4). Such a process may permit the synthesis and interpretation of HIV-related data from disparate sources (e.g., surveillance, programs, research studies) for use in public health decision making, especially in the absence of or as a supplement to traditional intervention research and metaanalysis (Rutherford et al., 2010).


Altice, F. L., A. Kamarulzaman, V. V. Soriano, M. Schechter, and G. H. Friedland. 2010. Treatment of medical, psychiatric, and substance-use comorbidities in people infected with HIV who use drugs. Lancet 37:6367-6387.

Anema, A., N. Vogenthaler, E. A. Frongillo, S. Kadiyala, and S. D. Weiser. 2009. Food insecurity and HIV/AIDS: Current knowledge, gaps, and research priorities. Current HIV/AIDS Report 6(4):224-231.

Arici, C., D. Ripamonti, F. Maggiolo, M. Rizzi, M. G. Finazzi, P. Pezzotti, and F. Sutter. 2002. Factors associated with the failure of HIV-positive persons to return for scheduled medical visits. HIV Clinical Trials 3(1):52-57.

Baillargeon, J. G., T. P. Giordano, A. J. Harzke, G. Baillargeon, J. D. Rich, and D. P. Paar. 2010. Enrollment in outpatient care among newly released prison inmates with HIV infection. Public Health Reports 125(Suppl 1):64-71.

Blair, J. M., A. D. McNaghten, E. L. Frazier, J. Skarbinski, P. Huang, and J. D. Heffelfinger. 2011. Clinical and behavioral characteristics of adults receiving medical care for HIV infection—Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2007. MMWR Surveillance Summaries 60(11):1-20.

Bowling, A. 2005. Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality. Journal of Public Health 27(3):281-291.

Bozzette, S. A., S. H. Berry, N. Duan, M. R. Grankel, A. A. Leibowitz, D. Lefkowitz, C. A. Emmons, J. W. Senterfitt, M. L. Berk, S. C. Morton, and M. F. Shapiro. 1998. The care of HIV-infected adults in the United States: HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study Consortium. New England Journal of Medicine 339(26):1897-1904.

Buchanan, D., R. Kee, L.S. Sadowski, and D. Garcia. 2009. The health impact of supportive housing for HIV-positive homeless patients: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health 99(Suppl 3):S675-S680.

Buettgens, M., and M. Hall. 2011. Who Will be Insured After Health Insurance Reform? http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/71998.pdf (accessed August 6, 2012).

Butler, S. F., A. Villapiano, and A. Malinow. 2009. The effect of computer-mediated administration on self-disclosure of problems on the addiction severity index. Journal of Addiction Medicine 3(4):194-203.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement