and mealtime practices in family day care settings. She reviewed several methodologies for assessing barriers and facilitators in both the home food “microenvironment” (i.e., the environment inside the home) and the “macroenvironment” (i.e., the social and environmental context of the home itself). The same methodologies could be adapted for use in identifying factors that operate as barriers or facilitators to implementing the CACFP meal requirement changes.

EVALUATING BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS TO CHANGE IN CHILD CARE CENTERS1

Lorrene Ritchie identified two major elements of organizational change: factors external to the organization (e.g., how the change is communicated, external resources available to an organization to implement the change, and perceived value of the change) and factors internal to the organization (e.g., existing factors that influence reaction to the change or willingness to change, steps for putting the change into practice, and how the change is made permanent). Both external and internal change are part of the “Model of Diffusion of Innovations in Organizations” (Greenhalgh et al., 2004; Olstad et al., 2011), which Ritchie pointed to as a good theoretical framework for building research questions on barriers and facilitators to organizational change in child care settings. In her opinion, having a theoretical framework in hand is helpful, as researchers have only just begun to touch the surface of this topic in child care settings. There are many questions that have not even been asked yet. Ritchie highlighted three types of child care sites where more studies are especially needed: sites with younger children, family child care homes, and license-exempt care sites (a child care home that can operate legally without a license; e.g., a provider who cares only for his or her relatives may be exempt).

Ritchie identified four “to whom” types of barriers and facilitators, that is, “to whom” the factor is a barrier or facilitator: (1) centers (e.g., costs, access, staffing, facilities, policy, and experience); (2) providers (e.g., time, training, support, priorities, and health concerns); (3) children (e.g., preferences and knowledge); and (4) parents (e.g., preferences, support, and knowledge). The methodologies she discussed addressed a mix of “to whom” types of barriers and facilitators.

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1This section summarizes the presentation of Lorrene Ritchie from the University of California, Berkeley.



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