zations in a variety of technical and research positions. Most recently, he was executive director for the International Life Sciences Institute North America. As head of nutrition research, he worked at the Novartis Consumer Health Center in Switzerland guiding research in medical, health, and functional nutrition. At Nestlé in Canada, Dr. Black was director of scientific and regulatory affairs and manufacturing services. He was also manager of nutrition and scientific affairs at Kellogg Canada. At McMaster University, he received B.S. degrees in psychology and in chemistry and completed his Ph.D. in psychology. At the University of Toronto, Dr. Black did a postdoctoral fellowship in the Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, and subsequently served as assistant professor in the Department of Nutritional Sciences.

David Castle, Ph.D., is professor and chair of Innovation in the Life Sciences in the School of Political Science at the University of Edinburgh. His interests include innovation in the life sciences and social aspects of biotechnology, and his research focuses on the interaction between science and society, including democratic engagement, regulation and governance, and intellectual property and knowledge management. He has published dozens of peer-reviewed articles and book chapters and several books on the social dimensions of science, technology, and innovation. Dr. Castle has received several major research awards and has considerable experience leading strategic research initiatives and research project management. In addition, he has consulted widely for government and industry on issues such as the impact of national technology transfer policies and programs, intellectual property strategies for health research and development, and the role of nonscientific considerations in the regulation of science and technology.

William Dietz, M.D., Ph.D., is director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity in the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prior to his appointment to the CDC, he was a professor of pediatrics at Tufts University School of Medicine and director of clinical nutrition at the Floating Hospital of New England Medical Center Hospitals. In addition to his academic responsibilities in Boston, Dr. Dietz was a principal research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)–Harvard Division of Health Science and Technology, associate director of the Clinical Research Center at MIT, and director of the Boston Obesity/Nutrition Research Center funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). In 1995, he received the John Stalker Award from the American School Food Service Association for his efforts to improve school lunches. Dr. Dietz served on the 1995 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, as a past member of the NIDDK Task



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