in this summary are those of the facilitators, speakers, and panelists, as attributed to them, and are not the consensus views of the organizations they represent, the workshop participants, or members of the Food Forum. Further, the examples provided by the facilitators, speakers, and panelists throughout this report are not exhaustive, but rather only suggestions for consideration. The remainder of this report is organized into three chapters.

Chapter 2 (“Why Partner?”) summarizes the discussion and presentations that addressed the benefits and risks of engaging in public–private collaboration. Throughout the workshop, individual participants across sectors identified possible risks of cross-sector engagement, including competitive advantages or disadvantages for one partner, actual or potential conflicts of interest that can undermine public trust, a product or activity of one partner casting a “shadow” or undermining the value of the partnership, unequal levels of commitment or ineffective partners, the lack of control over results that are generated through the partnership, the lack of a clear return on investment when investing in research to generate knowledge, and a negative impact on individual or institutional integrity. A variety of possible risk mitigation strategies were consequently suggested by several workshop participants, including establishing clear rules of engagement, ensuring broad participation that includes the public-interest NGO sector, balancing public and private interests, checking brand complementarity, maintaining financial transparency and legal accountability, creating an option to opt out, and conducting ongoing monitoring and evaluation of partnership outcomes. The relevance of risk and the need to consider risk mitigation when deciding whether to enter into a new partnership emerged as major overarching themes of the workshop dialogue.

Chapter 3 (“How to Partner”) summarizes the discussion and presentations on the wide range of existing public–private partnerships in food and nutrition, with a focus on key features of success. While it is important to reflect on and understand the lessons learned from unsuccessful public–private partnerships, the workshop presenters emphasized the positive aspects of enabling partnerships given the limitations of time and scope. Participants identified several features of successful public–private partnerships, including authentic trust, mutuality, feasibility, joint planning, having clear procedural steps in place for risk mitigation and other operations, and complementarity. Several participants also emphasized intrasectoral trust can be more challenging to establish than intersectoral trust if competitors within one sector are asked to collaborate and compete simultaneously.

Chapter 4 (“What Next?”) summarizes the discussion and presentations aimed at providing guidance for moving forward. Participants identified and tested a draft tool for assessing whether to enter into a new partnership; discussed ways to navigate the ethics of public–private partnerships (i.e., primarily how to manage conflict of interest); and identified

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