DATA SOURCE: ACVP Newsletters (www.avcp.org); Additional data provided by the Executive Director, ACVP.
In 2002 and again in 2008, the ACVP completed demographic surveys of veterinary pathology training programs and employers to determine if the supply of veterinary pathologists moving through the programs would be sufficient to cover market needs (Owens et al., 2008a, b; Kelly-Wilson, 2002). Among other things, the results indicated a continued deficit in the supply of veterinary pathologists. Insufficient funding remained the biggest factor limiting the number of residency positions, and retirements continued to account for approximately 50% of job openings.
Strengthening the Specialty Colleges
ACLAM accredits 45 training programs throughout the United States and Canada. However, only 12 of these programs are based in veterinary colleges with many of the remaining programs based in medical colleges and hospitals. There are also three programs based in federal government institutions, one associated with a pharmaceutical company, and several others which derive trainee support from pharmaceutical companies. Although ACVP does not accredit training programs, of the 45 U.S. training sites listed on its website, 18 are not based in veterinary colleges. Clearly, training for these two disciplines has benefitted from expanding the training venue to include research centers in medicine, government, and industry. ACLAM and ACVP are aware of the demand for highly-trained specialists and are taking steps to attract candidates for diplomates and to improve the efficiency of their residency and examination processes. To assist mentors involved in residency training programs for laboratory animal medicine, ACLAM began developing a Role Delineation Document (RDD) in 1997, defining the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to be considered an ACLAM-certified laboratory-animal specialist. After two updates to the RDD, it was ultimately incorporated into the ACLAM certification examination as a template against which exam questions were aligned.
In 2002, ACLAM created a Career Pathways Committee (CPC) that developed programs at veterinary colleges to attract students into the profession through seminars, workshops, and summer externships. The CPC also encour-