WORKFORCE NEEDS IN

Veterinary
Medicine

Committee to Assess the Current and
Future Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources
Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Division on Earth and Life Studies
Policy and Global Affairs Division

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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WORKFORCE NEEDS IN Veterinary Medicine Committee to Assess the Current and Future Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Board on Higher Education and Workforce Division on Earth and Life Studies Policy and Global Affairs Division

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Insti- tute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was funded by Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the American Animal Hospital Association, Bayer Animal Health, and the Burroughs Welcome Fund under Award No. 1006607. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25744-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25744-1 Library of Congress Control Number: 2013949213 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested Citation: National Research Council. 2011. Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the re- sponsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Nation- al Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE TO ASSESS THE CURRENT AND FUTURE WORKFORCE NEEDS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE ALAN M. KELLY, Chair, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia (Emeritus) SHEILA W. ALLEN, University of Georgia, Athens VAL R. BEASLEY, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Emeritus) BONNIE BUNTAIN, University of Calgary Veterinary Medicine, Alberta, Canada HENRY E. CHILDERS, Cranston Animal Hospital, Rhode Island GARY COCKERELL, Cockerell Alliances, Grand Junction, Colorado HAROLD DAVIS, Amgen, Covington, Georgia (retired) JAMES G. FOX, (through February 2008), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MALCOLM GETZ, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee TRACEY S. MCNAMARA, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California GAY Y. MILLER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign BENNIE I. OSBURN, University of California, Davis (Emeritus) MARK V. PAULY, Wharton School of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia FRED W. QUIMBY, The Rockefeller University, New York (retired) WILLIE M. REED, (through February 2008), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana JOHN A. SHADDUCK, (through October 2007), Shadduck Consulting LLC, Denton, Texas MICHAEL A. STOTO, (through March 2008), Georgetown University, Washington, DC STEPHEN F. SUTHERLAND, Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, Michigan Staff ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources PETER HENDERSON, Director Board on Higher Education and Workforce JIM VOYTUK, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Coordinator, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources KARA MURPHY, Program Assistant, Board on Higher Education and Workforce v

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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES NORMAN R. SCOTT, Chair, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (Emeritus) PEGGY F. BARLETT, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia HAROLD L. BERGMAN, University of Wyoming, Laramie RICHARD A. DIXON, University of North Texas, Denton GARY F. HARTNELL, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri GENE HUGOSON, University of Minnesota, St. Paul MOLLY M. JAHN, University of Wisconsin-Madison ROBBIN S. JOHNSON, Cargill Foundation, Wayzata, Minnesota A.G. KAWAMURA, Solutions from the Land, Washington, DC JULIA L. KORNEGAY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh PHILIP E. NELSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana CHARLES W. RICE, Kansas State University, Manhattan ROGER A. SEDJO, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs MERCEDES VAZQUEZ-AÑON, Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, Missouri Staff ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Program Officer KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Coordinator KARA N. LANEY, Program Officer JANET M. MULLIGAN, Senior Program Associate for Research KATHLEEN REIMER, Senior Program Assistant EVONNE P.Y. TANG, Senior Program Officer PEGGY TSAI, Program Officer vi

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BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE WILLIAM E. KIRWAN, Chair, University System of Maryland, Adelphi F. KING ALEXANDER, California State University, Long Beach SUSAN K. AVERY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution JEAN-LOU CHAMEAU, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CARLOS CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, Arizona State University, Tempe RITA COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park and the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore PETER EWELL, National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, Colorado SYLVIA HURTADO, University of California, Los Angeles WILLIAM KELLEY, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia EARL LEWIS, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Atlanta Staff PETER HENDERSON, Director GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer SABRINA HALL, Program Associate JIM VOYTUK, Senior Program Officer vii

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Preface In 2007, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, the American Animal Hospital Associa- tion, Bayer Animal Health, and the Burroughs Welcome Fund asked the Nation- al Research Council (NRC) to conduct a comprehensive study of the current and future workforce needs in veterinary medicine. The request was motivated by concerns about how well the veterinary profession was presently meeting its public responsibilities and, in terms of human resources and facilities, how well it could adjust to the complex challenges facing society in the 21st century. Many of the concerns about the profession came into focus following the outbreak of West Nile fever in 1999: despite the spread of a zoonotic disease, human and veterinary public health agencies acted independently and did not communicate with one another. Subsequent outbreaks of SARS, monkeypox, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, highly pathogenic avian influenza, H1N1 influenza, and a variety of food safety and environmental issues heightened pub- lic concerns. They also raised further questions about the directions of veterinary medicine and the capacity of public health services the profession provides both in the United States and abroad. After September 11, 2001, concern about the vulnerability of the food supply, including the American livestock and poultry industries, drew attention to the declining presence of veterinarians serving the animal industries across the nation. These and other demographic, economic, political, and environmental de- velopments of the 21st century will profoundly change society and the services the veterinary profession must provide in order to remain relevant to the public. Responsibilities will increasingly involve global issues with greater emphasis focused on the interface of human, animal, and ecosystem health. To meet these needs, there are doubts that the present supply of veterinarians are adequate in biomedical research, industry, academia, companion animal practice, food ani- mal medicine, public health, and wildlife health. This report attempts to antici- pate some of the needs and measures that are essential for the profession to ful- fill given its changing roles in the 21st century. The study was undertaken at a time when the nation experienced a major economic downturn, which made deciphering the long-term trends in demand ix

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x Preface for veterinary services very challenging. Some estimates (the number of live- stock being raised, for example) will always be in flux due to economic or in- dustry cycles, but in the long term, the number of animals is less important for the profession than the evolution in the care and services needed for those ani- mals. Under the direction of the NRC Board on Agriculture and Natural Re- sources and Board on Higher Education and Workforce, a committee was im- paneled to address the issues provided in the Statement of Task. The committee was representative of the breadth of interest of the veterinary profession, and first met in April 2007 to consider the large undertaking the study commis- sioned. Over the next three years, the committee met on six occasions and par- ticipated in numerous conference calls to discuss ways of obtaining the needed information, review manuscripts, and revise the report. As would be expected from a committee with such diverse backgrounds, there were distinct and at times conflicting points of view. Nevertheless, committee members were always willing to learn from each other and in the end came to a consensus on the issues posed by the charge. Throughout the study the committee was very ably supported by the staff of the National Academies and is indebted to Jim Voytuk, Janet Mulligan, and Ka- ra Murphy for their expert assistance. The committee is especially grateful to Robin Schoen, Director of the Board of Agriculture and Natural Resources, for her encouragement, advice, and for keeping the committee focused on their charge. Alan M. Kelly, Chair Committee to Assess the Current and Future Workforce Needs in Veterinary Medicine

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their di- verse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The pur- pose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manu- script remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of the report: L. Garry Adams, Texas A&M University Burt S. Barnow, George Washington University Stephen W. Barthold, University of California, Davis Alicia L. Carriquiry, Iowa State University Norman F. Cheville, Iowa State University (Emeritus) Linda C. Cork, Stanford University (Emeritus) Arthur L. Lage, Harvard Medical School Joan M. Lakoski, University of Pittsburgh Thomas R. Lenz, Pfizer Animal Health Timothy C. McCarthy, Surgical Specialty Clinical for Animals James D. McKean, Iowa State University David E. Swayne, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Margaret A. Wild, U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Frederick A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, and George E. Seidel, Jr., Colorado State University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests with the authoring committee and the institution. xi

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xiv Contents 6 VETERINARIANS IN PUBLIC PRACTICE ................................... 111 Introduction, 111 Public Practice Veterinarians, 112 Federal Agency Employers of Veterinarians, 113 Veterinarians in State Government, 118 Salaries of Public Practice Veterinarians, 119 Future Supply of Public Practice Veterinarians, 121 Addressing the Risk of Gaps in the Public Veterinary Workforce, 125 7 VETERINARIANS IN WILDLIFE AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH ..................................................................... 128 Introduction, 128 Roles of Veterinarians in Wildlife and Ecosystem Health, 131 The Future Supply of Veterinarians for Jobs in Wildlife and Ecosystem Health, 148 8 GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY ............................................................. 155 Introduction, 155 Urbanization in the Developing World, 156 Urban Food Security, 157 Sustainable Intensification of Food Animal Production, 160 The Impact of Infectious Disease on Food Security, 163 The Importance of a Global Veterinary Structure, 164 9 ACADEMIC VETERINARY MEDICINE ........................................ 169 Introduction, 169 Funding for Veterinarian Education, 170 The Evolving Veterinary Curriculum, 171 New Concepts in Veterinary Education, 176 The Role of Veterinary Faculty, 180 Post-DVM Training and Education, 185 Research in Academic Veterinary Medicine, 193 10 AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE ON THE VETERINARY PROFESSION ........................................................... 198 Introduction, 198 The Rate of Return of a DVM Degree, 199 Trends in Earnings, 205 Supply of Graduates, 210 Increasing the Rate of Return of a Veterinary Education, 212 11 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................. 217 The State of the Veterinary Profession: Another Defining Moment in its History, 217

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Contents xv REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 232 APPENDIXES A COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOGRAPHIES ........................................... 249 B SURVEY OF COMPANION-ANIMAL PRACTICE OWNERS ........................................................................... 258 C SUPPORTING MATERIAL FOR CHAPTER 4 ................................... 264 D INQUIRY TO SELECTED COMPANIES ............................................ 292 E FEDERAL RECRUITMENT TOOLS ................................................... 297 F INTENSIVE SHORT COURSES THAT HELP PREPARE VETERINARY STUDENTS AND VETERINARIANS FOR CAREERS IN WILDLIFE AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH .................. 300 G ACADEMIC SURVEY OF VETERINARY PERSONNEL ................. 306

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List of Tables, Figures and Boxes TABLES S-1 Employed U.S. Veterinarians in 2010, 7 S-2 Veterinarians in the Federal Government, 12 1-1 Number (2010) and Earnings (2009) of Veterinarians Employed in the United States, 25 2-1 Companion-Animal Full-Time Equivalents in 2006, 35 2-2 Predicted DVM Full-Time Equivalents Needed in 2016 Based on Committee Estimates, 38 2-3 An Estimate of Veterinarians Employed in 2008 Expected to be Working in 2016, 39 2-4 Projected Number of Graduates of Accredited Colleges of Veterinary Medicine 2008-2016, 40 2-5 Projected Career Paths for Graduates 2008-2016, 40 2-6 Estimated Number of 2016 Companion-Animal Full-Time Equivalents from New Graduates, 42 3-1 Horse Population by Activity, 46 3-2 Equine Practices Devoted to Horses, 51 3-3 American Association of Equine Practitioners Membership Attrition Rates by Years in Practice, 52 4-1 Number of Farms Producing Pigs, 1994-2006, 64 4-2 Changes in the Size Structure of U.S. Dairy Farms, 2000-2006, 69 4-3 Changes in the Size and Location of U.S. Dairy Farms, 1994-2006, 70 4-4 California and Wisconsin: Comparison of Operations, Operations Size, and Members in the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, 71 4-5 Size Distribution of U.S. Beef Farms, 75 4-6 Use of Veterinary Services by Herd Size in Different Sectors of Beef Industry, 76 4-7 Number of U.S. Veterinarians in the American Veterinary Medical Association, Membership by Category, 80 4-8 Starting Salaries and Mean Debt for New Graduates, 1989-2011, 85 xvii

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xviii List of Tables, Figures and Boxes 5-1 Number of Companies that Responded to the Committee Questionnaire, by Industry Sector, 95 5-2 Qualifications of Veterinarians in Six Contract Research Organizations that Responded to the Committee Questionnaire, 96 5-3 Qualifications of Veterinarians in Nine Animal Health Companies that Responded to the Committee Questionnaire, 97 5-4 Distribution and Expertise of Veterinarians in an Animal Health Products Division of a Pharmaceutical Company (Company A), 99 5-5 Veterinarians in the Human Health Division of Company A, 100 5-6 Open, Full-Time Positions for Veterinarians Advertised in 2007 by Companies that Responded to the Questionnaire, 101 5-7 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Diplomates by Employment Sector, 2007, 107 5-8 American College of Veterinary Pathology Diplomates by Employment Sector, 2007, 107 5-9 Number of Active American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Members, Retirees, and New Diplomates, 107 5-10 Number of Active American College of Veterinary Pathology Members, Retirees, and New Diplomates, 108 6-1 Veterinarians in the U.S. Government in 2008 and 2010, 114 6-2 2009 Average Annual Salaries of Federal Employees, 120 6-3 Reported Mean Salary Levels for Federal Veterinarians, 120 7-1 States with Wildlife Agencies that Employ Veterinarians, and Numbers of Veterinarians Employed in 2009, 137 7-2 Examples of University-based Wildlife Programs, 139 8-1 Past and Projected Trends of Consumption of Livestock Products, 160 9-1 Current and Anticipated Demand for Faculty in Veterinary Colleges, Departments of Veterinary Science, and Departments of Comparative Medicine that Responded to the Committee Survey, 181 9-2 Specialty Boards Recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association, 186 9-3 Funding for Veterinary Research, 194 9-4 National Institute of Health Funding to Veterinary Colleges, 2011, 195 10-1 Estimated Average Return for Obtaining a DVM, , 204 C-1 Food-Animal Workforce, 2001-2007, by State, 278 C-2a Food-Animal-Exclusive Veterinarians: Mean Ages and Percentage Over Age 50, by State, 279 C-2b Food-Animal-Exclusive Veterinarians: Mean Ages and Percentage Over Age 60, by State, 280 C-3a Food-Animal-Predominant Veterinarians Over Age 50, by State, 281 C-3b Food-Animal-Predominant Veterinarians Over Age 60, by State, 282 C-4a Mixed-Food-Animal Veterinarians Over Age 50, by State, 283 C-4b Mixed-Food-Animal Veterinarians Over Age 60, by State, 284

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List of Tables, Figures and Boxes xix FIGURES S-1 Student debt and mean starting salary for new DVM graduates, 8 2-1 1997-2009 Associate mean income by practice sector, 30 2-2 Numbers of pets in American households, 32 2-3 Average annual expenditure per pet-owning household, 32 2-4 Impact of veterinary technicians and assistants on DVM practice revenue, 43 3-1 American Quarter Horse Association registrations, 1995-2008, 47 3-2 Number of Thoroughbred races in the United States and Canada/Puerto Rico, 1998-2009, 49 3-3 Registered Thoroughbred stallions, 2000-2008, 49 3-4 Thoroughbred mares bred, 2000-2008, 49 3-5 Years in which current American Association of Equine Practitioners members joined the Association, 51 4-1 The value of livestock products relative to corn from 2000-2012, 61 4-2 Number of hog operations, 1984-2008, in thousands, 64 4-3 New members of American Association of Swine Veterinarians, 1966-2006, 67 4-4 Number and average size of dairy farms in the United States in thousands, 1970-2006, 67 4-5 Dashboard analysis tool: How many dairy vets?, 72 4-6 Recruitment to the American Association of Bovine Practitioners 1975-2005, 73 4-7 Number of all U.S. cattle and beef-cow operations, 1998-2008, 74 4-8 United States sheep and lamb population, 1998-2009, 77 4-9 U.S. sheep and goat operations in 2007 and 2008, 78 4-10 Changes in the composition of the food animal workforce, 81 4-11 Age Groups within food-animal-exclusive practice, 2001 and 2007, 82 4-12 Age Groups within food-animal-predominant practice, 2001 and 2007, 83 4-13 Age Groups within mixed-food-animal practice, 2001 and 2007, 83 4-14 Career selection of veterinary graduates entering food-animal practice, 85 4-15 2009 median incomes of practice owners and associates by category, 86 5-1 Average number of veterinarians employed per company responding to committee questionnaire by sector, 95 7-1 Locations and sponsorship of North American programs devoted to disease investigations involving free-ranging fauna (state, federal, and university cooperative programs), 136 8-1 Urban and rural fresh dairy product consumption, 160 9-1 Survey respondents need for faculty in the basic sciences: Number of vacant positions in 2007 and anticipated vacancies in 2010 and 2016 due to retirements, by discipline, 182

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xx List of Tables, Figures and Boxes 9-2 Survey respondents need for faculty in the clinical sciences: Number of vacancies and openings due to retirements in large and food-animal clinical positions, by discipline, 183 9-3 Survey respondents need for faculty: Number of vacancies and openings due to retirements in small-animal clinical positions, by discipline, 183 9-4 Residency and internship position notifications submitted to the American Association of Veterinary Clinicians, 1988-2009, 187 9-5 Total numbers of DVM/VMD and post-graduate students in 2007 and projected for 2010 and 2016, as reported by institutions responding to committee survey, 191 9-6 Total numbers of DVM/VMD and post-graduate students in 2007 and projected for 2010 and 2016, as reported by institutions responding to committee survey, 191 10-1 Mean incomes in small-animal practice, 202 10-2 Mean DVM income (in 2006 dollars) in private practice, 1965-2007, 205 10-3 Mean starting DVM salaries (in 2006 dollars), 207 10-4 Positions taken immediately after earning DVM, by percentage of DVM respondents, 207 10-5 Median career earnings in the health profession, 208 10-6 New DVM graduates by year in the United States, 211 11-1 Student debt and mean starting salary for new DVM graduates, 224 C-1 Food-animal concentrations in counties that have no veterinarians, 265 C-2 Changes in population growth between 1990 and 2000 for the 3,141 counties and equivalent areas in the United States, 266 C-3 Distribution of the 1,011 food-animal-exclusive veterinarians in the United States, 2007, 267 C-4 Distribution of the 4,200 mixed-food-animal veterinarians in the United States, 2007, 268 C-5 Distribution of the 3,861 food-animal-predominant veterinarians in the United States, 2007, 269 C-6a Distribution of egg-laying industry in the United States, 2007, 270 C-6b Distribution of broiler industry in the United States, 2007, 271 C-7 Changes in the U.S. hog and pig inventory, 1992-1997, 272 C-8 The changing pork industry in Iowa, 1987 and 2002, 273 C-9 Milk-cow population, change in inventory, 2002-2007, 274 C-10 Beef-cows inventory, 2007, 275 C-11a Meat-goat and other goat inventory, 276 C-11b Dairy-goat inventory, 2007, 277 C-12a Distribution of food-animal-exclusive veterinarians over age 50, 285 C-12b Distribution of food-animal-exclusive veterinarians over age 60, 286 C-13a Distribution of food-animal-predominant veterinarians over age 50, 287 C-13b Distribution of food-animal-predominant veterinarians over age 60, 288 C-14a Distribution of mixed-food-animal veterinarians over age 50, 289 C-14b Distribution of mixed-food-animal veterinarians over age 60, 290

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List of Tables, Figures and Boxes xxi BOXES 1-1 Statement of Task, 26 2-1 Pet Insurance, 34 2-2 Calculation of Companion-Animal, Full-Time Equivalent Veterinarians, 35 4-1 Changes in the American Veterinary Medical Association Membership Data, 79 5-1 Perceived Factors that Drive the Demand for Veterinarians in Industry According to Company Respondents to Committee Questionnaire, 102 7-1 Excerpts from the Executive Summary of One Health - A New Professional Imperative, 130 7-2 The Manhattan Principles on “One World, One Health”, 132 7-3 Defining the Role of the Wildlife Veterinarian, 138 7-4 Cross-Sectorial Approach to Emerging Infectious Diseases, 150 7-5 Knowledge and Career Competencies in Wildlife and Ecosystem Health, 153 8-1 Rinderpest Eradication: A Success Story, 165 9-1 Standards for Accreditation from the American Veterinary Medical Association, 172 9-2 Increasing Number of Master’s Programs, 193 10-1 Possible Reasons for Differences in the Earnings of Male and Female DVMs, 203 10-2 Accreditation of Veterinary Medical Colleges, 215 10-3 Addressing Vacancies in Government Service, 216

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Acronyms AABP American Association of Bovine Practitioners AAEP American Association of Equine Practitioners AASV American Association of Swine Veterinarians AAVC American Association of Veterinary Clinicians AAVMC Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges AAWV American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians AAZV American Association of Zoo Veterinarians ACLAM American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine ACPV American College of Poultry Veterinarians ACVP American College of Veterinary Pathologists AHC American Horse Council AHI Animal Health Institute ASLAP American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture) AVMA American Veterinary Medical Association BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy CDC U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CPDF Central Personnel Data File (Office of Personnel Management) CRO Contract Research Organization DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security DOI U.S. Department of the Interior DVM Doctor of Veterinary Medicine ECFVG Educational Commission for Foreign Veterinary Graduates EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FAD foreign-animal disease FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration FMD foot-and-mouth disease FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture) FSVMC Food Supply Veterinary Medicine Coalition xxiii

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xxiv Acronyms FTE full-time equivalent FWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S. Department of the Interior) GAO Government Accountability Office GCP good clinical practice GLP good laboratory practice HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HPAI highly pathogenic avian influenza H1N1 influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (“swine flu”) IAAAM International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine LA large-animal LAE large-animal exclusive LAP large-animal predominant MPH Master of Public Health NCRR National Center for Research Resources (National Institutes of Health) NGO non-governmental organization NIFA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (U.S. Department of Agriculture) NIH National Institutes of Health NPS National Park Service NRC National Research Council NWHC National Wildlife Health Center (U.S. Geological Survey) NWRA National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. Department of Labor) SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome SETAC Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry STP Society of Toxicologic Pathology T-MAC Talent Management Advisory Council USAID U.S. Agency for International Development USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USGS U.S. Geological Survey VMCAS Veterinary Medical College Application Service VMD Veterinariae Medicinae Doctoris VMO Veterinarian Medical Officer WCS FVP Wildlife Conservation Society’s Field Veterinary Program WDA Wildlife Disease Association WHO World Health Organization