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Appendix C Overview of Data Sources The purpose of this appendix is to provide an overview of data sources on education statistics. Data sources can be categorized by their unit of analysis or their collecting agencies. Unit of analysis may be an institution, faculty, student, or household. Collection agencies include federal agencies, state agencies, or private data-collection agencies. A tabular summary of the available education data sources is presented in the following pages (Table C.1). More detailed ex- planation of each data source follows the table. Much of the text of the appendix is reproduced from the government web- sites referenced herein, especially sites maintained by the National Center for Education Statistics and the National Science Foundation. Direct links to Web pages are provided as footnotes where appropriate. 151

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TABLE C.1 Summary of Education Data Sources 152 Collection Objective of the Name of Survey Agency Survey Unit of Analysis Time Period Survey Componentsa Integrated National Center Collect data on Educational Collected Institutional Characteristics, Postsecondary for Educations postsecondary Institutions annually from Institutional Prices, Enrollment, Student Education Data Statistics education in the 1989 Financial Aid, Degrees and Certificates System (IPEDS) (NCES) United States. Conferred, Student Persistence and Success, and Institutional Human and Fiscal Resources. Higher Education NCES Predecessor to IPEDS. Currently not active. General Information The Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) system was conducted by the NCES between Survey (HEGIS) 1966 and 1985. These surveys collected institution-level data on such topics as institutional characteristics, enrollment, degrees conferred, salaries, employees, financial statistics, libraries, and others. Surveys were sent to approximately 3,400 accredited institutions of higher education. National Study NCES Provide data Faculty Four Cycles: Institution Survey; Department of Postsecondary about faculty to 1987-1988; Chairperson Survey and Faculty Faculty (NSOPF) postsecondary 1992-1993; Survey education researchers, 1998-1999; and planners, and policy 2003-2004 makers. National NCES Examine how students Student. Nationally Six Cycles: Major Field of Study; Tuition and Postsecondary and their families pay representative 1986-1987; Fees; Date First Enrolled, and Other Student Aid Study for postsecondary sample of all 1989-1990; Information from Institution Records (NPSAS) education. NPSAS students (graduate, 1992-1993; data provide the base- first-professional, 1995-1996; year sample BPS and and undergraduate) 1999-2000; and B&B. enrolled in 2003-2004 postsecondary education institutions.

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Baccalaureate and NCES Follow students Student. Drawn from Three Cycles: Time to Bachelor's Degree; Beyond (B&B) who complete their NPSAS sample. 1993-1994, 1997, Undergraduate Education; baccalaureate degrees. Students who 2003; Employment; Initially, students in completed bachelor's 2000-2001; Postbaccalaureate Enrollment and the NPSAS surveys degrees in academic and 2008 Student Characteristics are identified as being year of the NPSAS in their last year of survey. undergraduate studies. Recent College NCES Analyze the Student Periodically: Degree Programs; College Graduates (RCG) occupational 1976-1991. B&B Experiences; Employment outcomes and replaced RCG Opportunities; Student Work educational Experiences and Teaching Credentials experiences of bachelor's and master's degree recipients who graduated from colleges and universities in the continental United States. continued 153

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TABLE C.1Continued 154 Collection Objective of the Name of Survey Agency Survey Unit of Analysis Time Period Survey Componentsa Beginning NCES Collect information Student. Drawn from Three academic Student Characteristics; Postsecondary on all students who NPSAS sample. years: 1989-1990, Institutional Characteristics and Students entered postsecondary Students identified as 1990-1991, and Degree Programs; Longitudinal Study education for first-time beginning 1991-1992 Student Educational Experiences; (BPS) the first time. students. Financing Postsecondary Education; Includes all types Student Work Experiences; of postsecondary Marriage and Family Information; educational Civic Participation and institutions: public Noncredit Education Activities institutions; private, not-for-profit institutions; and private, for-profit institutions. National Household NCES Collect information Household Nine Cycles: Adult Education; Before- and Education Survey from households on a 1991, 1993, 1995, After-School Programs and (NHES) variety of educational 1996, 1999, 2001, Activities; Early Childhood Program issues. 2003, 2005, and Participation; Parent and Family 2007 Involvement in Education; Civic Involvement; Household Library Use; School Readiness; School Safety and Discipline

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Wisconsin National Institute Provide study of Student. Random Five Cycles: Data from the original respondents or Longitudinal Study on Aging (NIA) life course from late sample of 10,317 1957, 1964, 1975- their parents from 1957 to 1975 cover of 1957 adolescence to early/ men and women 1977, 1992-1994, social background, youthful and mid-60s. who graduated from 2002-2005 adult aspirations, schooling, military Wisconsin high (47 years) service, family formation, labor schools in 1957 and market experience, and social of their randomly participation. The 1992-1993 surveys selected brothers cover occupational histories; income, and sisters. Survey assets, and economic transfers; social data were collected and economic characteristics of from the original parents, siblings, and children; and respondents or their mental and physical health and well- parents in 1957, 1964, being. Parallel interviews have been 1975, and 1993, carried out with siblings in 1977 and and from a selected 1993-1994. The current round of sibling in 1977 and survey data collection from graduates, 1994. siblings, and their spouses or widows began late in 2003. These new data repeat many previous measures, but add more extensive data on health, health behaviors, health insurance, psychological and cognitive functioning, family relations, social and civic participation, religiosity, and preparation for retirement and for the end of life. continued 155

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TABLE C.1Continued 156 Collection Objective of the Name of Survey Agency Survey Unit of Analysis Time Period Survey Componentsa National NCES Provide ongoing and Student. Participants Follow-up surveys General Information; Education and Longitudinal updated database of in the study were in 1973, 1974, Training; Work Experience; Family Survey of Class of sample of high school selected when they 1976, 1979, and Status; Military Service; Activities 1972 (NLS 72) seniors and their were seniors in high 1986 (14 years) and Opinions and Background experiences. school in the spring Information of 1972, and in a supplementary sample drawn in 1973. High School and NCES Follow the Student. Consists of Both cohorts were Background Information; Beyond (HSB) educational, two cohorts: 1980 surveyed every Work Experience; Periods of vocational, and senior class, and the 2 years through Unemployment; Education; Other personal development 1980 sophomore 1986, and the Training; Family Information; of young people. class. 1980 sophomore Income; Experiences and Opinions class was also surveyed again in 1992. (6 years) National Education NCES Same as above. Student. Cohort of First follow-up Demographic Characteristics and Longitudinal Study students who were in in 1990. Second Eighth-Grade Status; Education; of 1988 the eighth grade in one in 1992 and Current Activities; Employment (NELS 88) 1988. third one in 1994. and Income; Marriage and Parental Final follow-up in Status; Volunteer and Leisure Time 2000. (12 years) Variables

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Educational NCES Monitor the Student. First follow-up in Student: School Experience and Longitudinal Study progress of sample Nationally 2004 and second Activities; Plans for the Future; of 2002 of tenth graders representative sample follow-up in 2006. Language; Money and Work; Family (ELS 2002) from high school of high school Third follow-up and Beliefs and Opinions About Self. to postsecondary sophomores in 2002 planned in 2012. Teacher: Teacher Background and education to work. spring term. (10 years) Activities. Library and Media Center: Policies, Facilities, Staffing, Technology; School Administrator: Student and Teacher Characteristics; Structure and Policies. High School NCES Understand the Student. Cohort of First follow-up is Student: Student Background, Longitudinal Study trajectory of sample ninth graders in 2009. planned for 2012. Previous School Experience, Math of 2009 (HSLS of ninth graders Final follow-up in Experiences, Science Experiences, 2009) from high school 2021. (13 years) Home and School, Postsecondary to postsecondary Education Plans, Life After High education to work. School. Concentration on Parent: Family Structure, Origin and factors determining Language, Parental Education and choices toward STEM Occupation, Student's Educational fields. Experience, Parental Involvement, Student's Future. Teacher: Background, Math and Science Department and Instruction, Beliefs about Teaching and Current School. School Counselor: Staffing and Practice, Program and Policies, Math and Science Placement, Opinions and Background. School Administrator: School Characteristics, Student Population, School's Teachers, Courses Offered, Goals and Background. continued 157

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TABLE C.1Continued 158 Collection Objective of the Name of Survey Agency Survey Unit of Analysis Time Period Survey Componentsa National Bureau of Labor Study changes over Student. These individuals Attitudes, Expectations, and Longitudinal Statistics (BLS) time and examines Nationally were interviewed Noncognitive Tests; Crime and Survey of Youth cause-effect representative sample annually through Substance Use; Education, Training, 1979 (NLSY 79) relationships. of 12,686 young men 1994 and and Cognitive Tests; Employment; and women who are currently Health; Income, Assets, and Program were 14-22 years old interviewed on a Participation; Fertility, Children, and when they were first biennial basis. (32 Childcare; Parents, Family Processes, surveyed in 1979. years in 2010) and Childhood; Household, Geographic, and Contextual Variables; Relationships, Dating, and Sexual Activity National BLS Study changes over Student. These individuals Aptitude and Achievement Longitudinal time and examines NLSY 97 consists were interviewed Scores; Education; Employment; Survey of Youth cause-effect of a nationally annually. 13 Expectations, Attitudes, Behaviors, 1997 (NLSY 97) relationships. representative sample rounds have taken and Time Use; Family Background of 8,984 youths who place so far. (13 and Demographic Characteristics; were 12 to 16 years years in 2009) Health; Income, Program old as of December Participation, and Assets; Marital 31, 1996. History, Childcare and Fertility; Training

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Survey of Graduate National Science Provide data on Student and Academic Collected Enrollment Status, Gender, Race/ Students and Foundation- the number and Unit. All academic periodically. Ethnicity, Citizenship, Primary Postdoctorates National characteristics of institutions in the Source and Mechanism of Support, in Science and Institutes graduate students, United States and Highest Degree Attained Engineering of Health postdoctoral its territories that (NSF-NIH) appointees, and grant research-based doctorate-holding master's degrees or nonfaculty researchers doctorates, appoint in science and postdocs, or employ engineering (S&E) doctorate-holding and selected health nonfaculty researchers fields. in S&E and selected health fields are eligible. Survey of Earned NSF Provide data Student. All Collected Enrollment Status, Gender, Race/ Doctorates (SED) on number and individuals receiving periodically from Ethnicity, Citizenship, Primary characteristics of research doctorates 1957-1958. Source and Mechanism of Support, individuals receiving from accredited Highest Degree Attained research doctoral U.S. institutions are degrees. asked to complete the survey. continued 159

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TABLE C.1Continued 160 Collection Objective of the Name of Survey Agency Survey Unit of Analysis Time Period Survey Componentsa Survey of Doctorate NSF Gather information Student. Recipients of Collected Enrollment Status, Gender, Race/ Recipients (SDR) from individuals doctoral degree in a biennially. Ethnicity, Disability Status, who have obtained a science, engineering, Before 1993 Citizenship, Primary Source and doctoral degree in a or health field living data collected by Mechanism of Support, Highest science, engineering, in the U.S. during National Research Degree Attained, Marital Status or health field. the survey reference Council. For NSF. and Number of Children, Salary, week, who are Under NSF there Satisfaction and Importance of noninstitutionalized had been seven Various Aspects of Job, Occupation, and under age 76. cycles till now- Postdoctorate Status Longitudinal survey 1993, 1995, 1997, follows recipients of 1999, 2001, 2003, research doctorates and 2006. from U.S. institutions until age 76. National Survey of NSF Provide data on Student. Respondents Two decade Demographic Characteristics, College Graduates the number and are individuals who long biennial Immigrant Module (Year of Entry, (NSCG) characteristics recently received longitudinal Type of Visa, etc.), Number of of experienced bachelor's or master's surveys. One Children; Educational History, School individuals with degrees in an S&E started in 1993 Enrollment Status; Employment education and/ field from a U.S. and the second Status, Salary, Satisfaction and or employment institution, were living one in 2003. Importance of Various Aspects of Job, in science and in the U.S. during Sector of Employment, Academic engineering (S&E, or the survey reference Employment and Work-Related S&E-related fields). week, and are under Training; Publications and Patent age 76. Activities

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National Survey NSF Gather information Student. Respondents Collected Enrollment Status, Gender, Race/ of Recent College about individuals who are individuals who biennially from Ethnicity, Disability Status, Graduates recently obtained recently received 1993. Citizenship, Primary Source and (NSRCG) bachelor's or master's bachelor's or master's Mechanism of Support, Highest degrees in a science, degrees in an SEH Degree Attained, Marital Status engineering, or health field from a U.S. and Number of Children, Salary, (SEH) field. institution, were living Satisfaction and Importance of in the U.S. during Various Aspects of Job, Occupation, the survey reference Parental Education week, and are under age 76. State Student Varies across Link statewide student Student. Information The inception Demographics, Academic Unit-Record (SUR) states. Mostly record databases. on student's varies from state Background, Enrollment Status, Databases State Higher background and to state. California Academic Activity, and Academic Education academics. in 1970, Texas Attainment Executive and Wisconsin in Officers Agency 1973. Latest to join is Kansas in 2002. National Survey Center for Time use of Student in a Annual survey College Activities, Educational of Student Survey Research undergraduate participating starting from and Personal Growth, Opinions Engagement supported by students and gains in institution. year 2000. About Your School, Background (NSSE) Pew Charitable learning from college/ Participation of Information Trust university education. institutions is by choice. continued 161

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192 IMPROVING MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION of support and whether the individual holds a professional doctorate in a medical or related field. In the case of doctorate-holding nonfaculty researcher, variables collected are sex and whether the individual holds a professional doctorate in a medical or related field. At the institution level, information is available on high- est degree granted, institution type, Carnegie classification, state of location and whether it is a historically black college or university. Survey of Earned Doctorates The Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED)18 began in 1957-1958 to collect data continuously on the number and characteristics of individuals receiving research doctoral degrees from all accredited U.S. institutions. The results of this annual survey are used to assess characteristics and trends in doctorate education and degrees. This information is vital for educational and labor force planners within the federal government and in academia. The SED is sponsored by the follow- ing six federal agencies: National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Endowment for the Humanities, and National Aeronautics and Space Administra- tion. The Science Resources Statistics Division (SRS) of the NSF monitors the contract to conduct the SED. All individuals receiving research doctorates from accredited U.S. institu- tions are asked to complete the survey. Each U.S. graduate school is responsible for providing the survey to their graduates and then submitting completed forms to the survey contractor. The SED is a census of all individuals receiving a re- search doctorate from a U.S. institution in the academic year (July 1 through June 30 of the next year). M.D., D.D.S., J.D., D.Pharm., and Psy.D degree holders are not included in the survey. The SED collects a complete college education history and therefore coding of institutions is very important. IPEDS provides the coding frame for the U.S. institutions where doctorate recipients earned their baccalaure- ate and/or master's degrees. As one-third of doctorate recipients from U.S. uni- versities are citizens of foreign countries, a coding manual for foreign institutions of higher education was developed by the U.S. Department of Education, entitled "Mapping the World of Education: The Comparative Database System." This cod- ing frame is used to code the baccalaureate and/or master's degree origins of U.S. doctorate recipients who earned earlier degrees in foreign countries. From 1957 to 1997, SED data collection was done by the National Research Council (NRC) for the NSF. The National Opinion Research Center has been conducting the survey since then. Starting from 1998, there were changes in the response categories of marital status (new categories introduced) and source of funding (new coding frame by reducing categories). Items collected in the sur- vey include demographic variables--age, sex, race/ethnicity, birth year, county 18See http://nsf.gov/statistics/survey.cfm [December 2010].

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APPENDIX C 193 of birth, country of citizenship at graduation, disability status, marital status, number/age of dependents; educational variables--educational history in col- lege, field of degree, baccalaureate-origin institution (U.S. or foreign), academic institution of doctorate, type of academic institution (e.g., historically black insti- tutions, Carnegie codes, control) awarding the doctorate, educational attainment of parents; postgraduation plans--work/postdoc/training, primary and secondary work activities, type and location of employer; financial variables--graduate and undergraduate educational debt, sources of financial support during graduate school. Survey of Doctorate Recipients The Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR)19 gathers information from indi- viduals who have obtained a doctoral degree in an SEH field. The SDR is a bi- annual and longitudinal survey that follows recipients of research doctorates from U.S. institutions until age 76. This group is of special interest to many decision makers, because it represents some of the most highly educated individuals in the U.S. workforce. The SDR results are used by employers in the education, indus- try, and government sectors to understand and to predict trends in employment opportunities and salaries in SEH fields for graduates with doctoral degrees. The results are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of equal opportunity efforts. The NSF also finds the results important for internal planning, as most NSF grants go to individuals with doctoral degrees. Respondents were individuals with a re- search doctorate in a SEH field from a U.S. institution, were living in the United States during the survey reference week, noninstitutionalized and under age 76. Before 1997 data collection for SDR was done by the NRC for the NSF. There were major changes in the 1993 cycle in survey instrument design and content. The format and layout of the questionnaires were changed to make them more accessible for respondents. This included using a larger font size for improved readability, using graphical aids to indicate skip patterns, and using reverse printing to indicate answer spaces. The survey instrument was expanded from eight pages to twenty pages. New questions were added to gather informa- tion on such topics as degrees earned since receipt of the first doctorate, relation- ship of degree to current job, and reasons for making job changes. Sections on employment and demographic characteristics were also modified to facilitate analysis of the relationship between educational attainment and occupational outcomes. Thus, pre-1993 SDR data and post-1993 SDR data are not strictly comparable. Items in the 2006 survey cycle include demographic variables--age, sex, race/ethnicity, citizenship status, place of birth, country of birth, country of citizenship, disability status, marital status, number of children; educational 19See http://nsf.gov/statistics/survey.cfm [December 2010].

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194 IMPROVING MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION variables--educational history (for each degree held: field, level, institution, when received), educational attainment of parents, school enrollment status; financial variables--financial support and debt amount for undergraduate and graduate degree; postdoctorate status (current and/or three most recent postdoctoral ap- pointments); occupation/work related variables--employment status (part-time, full-time, unemployed), geographic place of employment, occupation (current or previous job), work activity (e.g., teaching, basic research, etc.), salary, overall satisfaction and importance of various aspects of job, sector of employment (e.g., academia, industry, government, etc.), and work-related training. The data from the SDR are combined with that from two other NSF sur- veys of scientists and engineers, the NSCG and the NSRCG. The three surveys are closely coordinated and share the same reference date and nearly identical instruments. The database developed from the three surveys, the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), provides a comprehensive picture of the number and characteristics of individuals with training and/or employment in science, engineering, or related fields in the United States. Differences Between Survey of Earned Doctorates and Survey of Doctorate Recipients The SED is a census of all individuals who received a research doctoral degree irrespective of the field of degree. The graduate schools collect question- naires from degree recipients at the time of completion of degree. Data from SED does not require sampling, weighting, or adjustments for nonresponse. Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) is a longitudinal survey of individuals who have received a research doctoral degree in a science, engineering, or health field (SEH). SED respondents are not followed. In each biannual cycle of SDR, its sample frame is augmented by new cohorts of science and engineering doctorate recipients identified by the SED. Thus, SDR draws its sampling frame from SED. The two surveys also differ in key variables collected. The SED concentrates on the type and field of degree received, debt burden, and postgraduation plans, while SDR concentrates more on work experiences after attaining degree. The SED also asks about previously received foreign degrees and educational attain- ment of parents. Statewide Longitudinal Data System (SLDS) The Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems (SLDS)20 Grant Program, as au- thorized by the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002, Title II of the statute that created the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), is designed to aid state education agencies in developing and implementing longitudinal data sys- 20See http://nces.ed.gov/programs/slds/ [December 2010].

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APPENDIX C 195 tems. These systems are intended to enhance the ability of states to efficiently and accurately manage, analyze, and use education data, including individual student records. The data systems developed with funds from these grants should help states, districts, schools, and teachers make data-driven decisions to improve student learning, as well as facilitate research to increase student achievement and close achievement gaps. These competitive, cooperative agreement grants extend for three to five years and provide up to $20 million per grantee. Grantees are obligated to submit annual reports and a final report on the development and implementation of their systems. All fifty states, five territories, and the District of Columbia are eligible to apply. In November 2005, the first year of the grant pro- gram, IES awarded SLDS grants to fourteen states. SLDS grants were awarded to twelve additional states and the District of Columbia in June 2007 (FY 2007 Grantees), twenty-seven states--including fifteen new states--in March 2009 (FY 2009 Grantees), and twenty states in May 2010 (FY 2009 ARRA Grantees). NCES administers the grants and also provides technical assistance to grant recipients. Grant amount ranges from $1.5 million to $39.7 million and will be disbursed over a period of three to five years. The SLDS grant program is jointly sponsored by federal government and state governments. Lessons learned and nonproprietary products or solutions developed by recipients of these grants will be disseminated to aid other state and local education agencies in the design, development, implementation, and use of longitudinal data systems. State Student Unit Record (SUR) Databases Forty-five states have Student Unit Record Databases (SUR)21 in place. Some states, such as California and Texas, have had such a system in place for a long time; others have developed these databases only recently. The SUR system is established by a state's legislature or Board of Regents for purposes that range from student tracking to resource allocation. Two-year and four-year public in- stitutions are included in the SUR system. In some cases, as in Florida, the SUR system may also include K-12 institutions. The databases contain records of students enrolled in public institutions in a state. Data elements covered in SUR can be categorized into: Demographics--sex, race/ethnicity, date of birth, citizenship, geographic origin, and disability status. Academic background--admission test scores, high school attended, high school class size, high school rank, high school GPA, high school graduation date, prior college attended, transfer credit, remedial status, placement test scores. 21See http://www.nchems.org/c2sp/sur/ [January 2011].

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196 IMPROVING MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION Enrollment status--degree seeking status, first term of academic, his- tory, full-time/part-time, program/major, financial aid details, join en- rollment status, distance education status. Academic activity--term data collected, term GPA, term credits at- tempted, term credits earned. Academic attainment--cumulative GPA, cumulative credits earned, de- gree awarded. Most of these data elements are collected by forty-nine states. Other data ele- ments, such as disability status, high school class size, high school rank, remedial status, placement test scores, and joint enrollment status, are collected by fewer than twenty state systems. National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) The purpose of conducting the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE)22 is to understand the quality of education being offered by institutions. The survey focuses on college experiences--gains made in learning, program expectations, and future plans. The NSSE was conceived in early 1998 and supported by a grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts. The NSSE conducted a successful pilot in 1999 that involved more than 75 selected four-year colleges and universities. Approximately 275 colleges and universities participated in the inaugural survey in the spring of 2000. In 2010 the number of participating institutions rose to 603. In 2009, 363,859 students participated in the survey. The sample consists of institutions from the United States and Canada. An institution which registers for the survey is required to post a message to its students that it is participating in the NSSE. The institution has discretion to select methods to encourage student participation. Each student in the institution is sent an e-mail message with the survey questionnaire embedded or is mailed the paper ques- tionnaire depending on the mode chosen by the institution. Survey components include college activities--class work and preparation, faculty interaction, peer interaction, mental activities emphasized by coursework, time use, activities planned before graduation; educational and personal growth--contribution of college education to knowledge, skills and personal development; opinions about the school--activities emphasized by school, relationships among faculty, staff and students; and background information-age, gender, ethnicity, nationality, edu- cational status of parents, level, grade received till now, types of schools attended since high school, current term enrollment status, sorority or fraternity member- ship, residency status, living alone or with others (parents, relative, roommates), and field of major. 22See http://nsse.iub.edu/html/about.cfm [January 2011].

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APPENDIX C 197 Beginning College Survey of Student Engagement (BCSSE) In Beginning College Survey of Student Engagement (BCSSE),23 the popula- tion of interest is students entering college. The survey is administered to first- year college or university students by Indiana University's Center for Survey Research and Center for Postsecondary Research. The BCSSE began in 2007 and had its fourth round in 2010. 72,954 entering first-year students across 129 institutions participated in the 2009 survey. Administration of BCSSE is similar to NSSE. Survey components are high school experiences--year of graduation, high school grade, performance in math classes, years in a particular subject classes, completion of AP or honors or col- lege credit courses, amount of reading and writing in the last year of high school, time use, class participation, faculty interaction, peer interaction, SAT/ACT scores, and participation in various activities; college experiences--expectation of time use, grades in coming year, highest degree attainment, expectations about involvement in class and course-related work, interacting with faculty and peers, expectation of difficulty level of course material, time management, paying college expenses, expectations from college or university, financial aid infor- mation; and additional information--gender, ethnicity, nationality, enrollment status, close friends attending the same college, parental education, and distance of college from home. Faculty Survey of Student Engagement Faculty Survey of Student Engagement (FSSE)24 is a complement to the NSSE. Its purpose is to measure faculty expectations of student engagement and it can be linked to results from the NSSE. The survey started in 2003. Thus far, 140,000 faculty members from 590 institutions have participated. Institutions that are participating in NSSE or have done so the previous year are eligible to admin- ister the faculty survey. With results from both surveys, it is possible to compare student and faculty answers to the same questions. The mode of the survey is Web-based only. Each institution selects its sample from faculty who teach at least one undergraduate course in the current academic year. Institutions provide the names and e-mail addresses of faculty to be surveyed. All other aspects of the survey administration are handled by FSSE (i.e., e-mails to faculty, follow-up, data collection, and analysis). Faculty responses to the survey remain anonymous to their institution. Survey components include items on faculty perceptions of how often students engage in different activities, the importance faculty place on various areas of learning and development, the nature and frequency of faculty- 23See http://bcsse.iub.edu/ [January 2011]. 24See http://fsse.iub.edu/ [January 2011].

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198 IMPROVING MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION student interactions and how faculty members organize their time, both in and out of the classroom. Community College Survey of Student Engagement To address the specific needs of students enrolled in community colleges, Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE)25 was initiated in 2001. The survey aims to fill the gap left by NSSE which draws its sample from four-year institutions only. CCSSE can be considered a partner survey of NSSE and is administered by the Community College Leadership Program at The Uni- versity of Texas at Austin. The survey is administered to students in randomly selected classes (credit courses only) at each participating college. The required number of course sections to be surveyed is determined by the total sample size. Therefore, sample sizes range from approximately 600 to approximately 1,200 students, depending on institutional size. For colleges with less than 1,500 stu- dents, the targeted sample size will be about 20 percent of total credit enrollment. A unique feature available to participating institutions is that they can chose to oversample to provide sufficient data for analysis in an area of interest, such as how successful an institution is in educating students from an ethnic community. Community colleges have multiple campuses and classes are offered in various sites. Oversampling can help also them to understand the relative efficacy of dif- ferent campuses. Questionnaire items in CCSSE are similar to NSSE items except for a few questions tailored for community college students. Survey components are col- lege activities, educational and personal growth and background information. Extra items included topics such as support from friends and immediate family, social life in college, Internet availability and use, reasons for attending commu- nity college, reasons which would force one to withdraw from college, financial sources, number and type of classes enrolled, credits earned, details about joint enrollment status, child care situation, and English as native or first language. Starting in 2006, a few supplemental questions were added. Their focus has changed from year to year: 2006: item on academic advising--identity of advisor, whether advisor provided up-to-date information, quality of working relationship with advisor and whether advising helped the student in setting academic goals and achieving them. 2007: item on entering student experience--meeting with an academic advisor, completion of assessment test, teaching methods, satisfaction with quality of new student orientation. 25See http://www.ccsse.org/aboutsurvey/aboutsurvey.cfm [January 2011].

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APPENDIX C 199 2008: item on student financial aid--submission of a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), reasons for not submitting details about other sources of financial aid. 2009: item on technology--usage of social networking sites or course management systems by students for communication with other stu- dents, instructors or college staff about coursework and usage of social networking sites by the college to communicate with student about vari- ous services. 2010: item on deep learning--usage of interdisciplinary ideas and di- verse perspectives to finish assignments or participate in class discus- sions, evaluate own views, empathize with another's viewpoint. 2011: item on practices for student success--freshman orientation ex- perience, participation in student development courses, clarity of in- struction activity, usage of college-provided material and participation in brief or multi-day refresher workshop to prepare for placement test, completion of college placement test, kind of courses taken due to re- sults of placement tests, help from academic advisor and participation in group learning or tutoring or supplemental instruction/learning. Community College Faculty Survey of Student Engagement Community College Faculty Survey of Student Engagement (CCFSSE)26 is a complement to CCSSE. Its purpose is to measure faculty expectations of student engagement and can be linked to the results from CCSSE. The survey started in 2005. At that time, thirty-nine community colleges participated. For CCFSSE 2011, 180 colleges have registered. Institutions which are participating in CCSSE or have done so the previous year are eligible to administer the faculty survey. The mode of the survey is Web-based only. Administration of CCFSSE is equivalent to that of FSSE. Survey components are very similar to FSSE, with few extra items to take into account special features of community college stu- dents. Participating faculty members are asked questions on frequency of referral and usage and importance of services provided by community colleges. Services included in the questionnaire are academic advising/planning, career counseling, job placement assistance, peer or other tutoring, skill labs (writing, math, etc.), child care, financial aid advising, computer lab, student organizations, transfer credit assistance, and service to students with disabilities. Faculty were specifi- cally asked about their work status (part-time or full-time), total number of credit hours scheduled to teach in the current academic term, components of teaching assignment, academic rank, tenure status, teaching experience, and educational qualification. 26See http://www.ccsse.org/CCFSSE/CCFSSE.cfm [January 2011].

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200 IMPROVING MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION Law School Survey of Student Engagement Law School Survey of Student Engagement (LSSSE)27 is a survey oriented toward law school students. The purpose of the survey is to gather information on law school experience, including how students spend their time, what they feel they've gained from their classes, their assessment of the quality of interactions with faculty and friends, and their view of important activities. LSSSE is housed in Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research and is co-sponsored by the Association of American Law Schools and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The survey is administered similarly to NSSE but is Web-based only. More than 160 law schools have participated since 2004. Around 25,000 law students participated in the 2010 survey. Survey components are very similar to NSSE except for few extra items tailored to law students. Extra items covered topics such as choice of law school, sexual orientation, enrollment in joint degree programs, time gap in years between undergraduate education and law school, expected amount of educational debt upon graduation, area of legal specialization, preferable and expected work environment. National Study of Student Learning The National Study of Student Learning (NSSL) was a longitudinal research project that ran from 1992 to 1995. It examined the influence of academic and nonacademic experiences on student learning, student attitudes about learning, student cognitive development, and student persistence. Eighteen four-year and five two-year postsecondary institutions participated in the study, with data col- lected from a total of 3,840 students. The eight areas of inquiry focused on the effects of: (1) attending a two-year college in comparison to a four-year college on cognitive development; (2) attending a historically black college compared to a predominantly white college on cognitive development; (3) teacher behavior on cognitive development; (4) first-generation college attendance on cognitive devel- opment and attitudes; (5) intercollegiate athletic participation on cognitive devel- opment; (6) institutional environment and students' academic and nonacademic experiences on students' openness to cultural and racial diversity; (7) affiliation with a fraternity or sorority on cognitive development during the first year of col- lege; and (8) in-class and out-of-class experiences on first-year students' critical thinking ability. Analysis of the data found little difference in the cognitive gains made by students attending two-year versus four-year institutions, or historically black versus predominantly white institutions. 27See http://lssse.iub.edu/about.cfm [January 2011].

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APPENDIX C 201 International Enrollment Survey and Study Abroad Survey International Enrollment Survey and Study Abroad Survey28 are two surveys conducted by Institute of International Education starting in 2000. They collect data on the number of international students attending various U.S. postsecondary institutions and the number of U.S. citizens studying abroad in foreign countries. The surveys was are carried out by the Institute of International Education (IIE) in cooperation with American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), American Council on Education (ACE), Association of American Universities (AAU), As- sociation of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU), Council of Graduate Schools (CGS), and NAFSA: Association of International Educators. A total of 688 institutions participated in the 2009-2010 survey. The international enrollment survey provide information on newly enrolled international students such as the countries of origin, kind of academic programs enrolled in, the most welcoming state, city and institution. At the institutional level, information is collected on total enrollment of such students in various programs. Similar variables are collected for students who are studying abroad-- host country, academic program, and duration of program. The data are obtained each year through surveys sent to approximately 3,000 accredited U.S. higher education institutions, who report on the international students enrolled at their campuses. The IIE was founded in 1919 with a mission to collect information on enrollment of international students in the United States. The data has been published as part of IIE's Open Doors project since 1954. The Open Doors project is supported by the U.S. Information Agency. IIE has been conducting the surveys on study abroad flows since 1985/86. The Open Doors Study Abroad survey counts only those students who received academic credit from an accredited U.S. institution of higher education after they returned from their study abroad experience. Students who travel and take courses abroad without receiving academic credit are not reported in Open Doors, nor are students who are enrolled overseas for degrees from non-U.S. institutions. National Student Clearinghouse The National Student Clearinghouse (NSC)29 is a central repository of stu- dent enrollment and graduation information. Its purpose is to provide the required enrollment information to the servicers and guarantors of the Federal Student Loan Programs. The Clearinghouse was designed primarily to service the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) loans, which include Stafford, Supple- 28See http://www.iie.org/en/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors [December 2010]. 29See http://studentclearinghouse.com/about/aboutus.htm [January 2011].

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202 IMPROVING MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION mental Loans for Students (SLS), PLUS and Consolidation loans, both through traditional lenders and through the Federal Direct Lending Program. More than 3,300 institutions and hundreds of school districts participate in the Clearinghouse, representing 92 percent of total U.S. college enrollment. It was originally created to provide lending organizations with enrollment verifica- tions and deferments of financial aid students. Over time, it expanded to verify degrees of graduates to employers, background search firms, and recruiters. Other data users include federal government agencies, student health insurance provid- ers, student credit issuers and student loan providers. The Clearinghouse also allows students who transfer from one participating school to another to continue their in-school deferment status without inherent delays. Participating institu- tions can send files of students of interest to the database and receive appended information containing number of schools and colleges attended, dates of enroll- ment and degree (if any) earned. The student tracker tool follows students across colleges/universities and across states. The Clearinghouse helps an institution to know about the educational background of currently enrolled students, educa- tional pathways of drop-outs and prospective students who did not enroll, and also postbaccalaureate pathways of graduates. Even though it is a comprehensive database following most students over time, the number of variables collected is very limited. There is no information on college experiences, jobs or internships during college education, expectations, and plans for future, etc. Unemployment Insurance Wage Record Data30 State Employment Security Agencies (SESA) collect employment and earn- ing reports from employers on a quarterly basis. The data is collected by these state agencies to aid the process of administering the nationwide system of unemployment compensation. SESA uses the information to determine the tax liability of employers for unemployment compensation and verification purposes. Even though wage record data is collected by state agencies, there is commonality across states. The common factors are social security numbers of all employees in the state who are covered by unemployment insurance, their quarterly earnings, the standard industrial code, business name and address of employer. The em- ployment and earnings data cover around 90 percent of the working population. 30U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Wage Record Information Systems, OTA-BP- HER-127 (Washington, DC, May 1994).