CAROL A. TWIGG is president and chief executive officer of the National Center for Academic Transformation in Saratoga Springs, New York, and an internationally recognized expert in using information technology to transform teaching and learning in higher education. Winner of the McGraw Prize in Education, she is former vice president of Educom (now EDUCAUSE), where she advanced the need for new models of student-centered, online teaching and learning, now commonly accepted in higher education. She also initiated the IMS Global Learning Consortium, which is establishing interoperable technical standards for online education and training. Before joining Educom, Dr. Twigg was associate vice chancellor for learning technologies for the State University of New York and held a number of senior academic administrative positions at Empire State College. She holds a Ph.D. in English literature from the State University of New York at Buffalo.

DAVID J. ZIMMERMAN is Orrin Sage professor of political economy and professor of economics at Williams College. He is also director of the Williams Project on the Economics of Higher Education and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. His research interests include labor economics, poverty and income distribution, and the economics of higher education. He holds M.A. and Ph.D. degrees, both in economics, from Princeton University.

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