3       WHY MEASUREMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION PRODUCTIVITY IS DIFFICULT

3.1. Beyond the Degree Factory—Multiple Outputs and Joint Production

3.2. Heterogeneity of Inputs and Outputs

3.3. Nonmarket Variables and Externalities

3.4. Quality Change and Variation

3.4.1. Inputs

3.4.2. Outputs (and Outcomes)

3.5. Measurement at Different Levels of Aggregation

3.5.1. Course and Department Level

3.5.2. Campus Level

3.5.3. State or System Level

3.6. Conclusion

4       ADVANCING THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

4.1. Chapter Overview

4.2. A Baseline Multi-Factor Productivity Model for Higher Education

4.2.1. Multi-Factor Productivity Indices

4.2.2. Outputs

4.2.3. Inputs

4.2.4. Allocations to Education

4.2.5. Illustrative Productivity Calculations

4.3. Institutional Segmentation and Disaggregative Indices

4.3.1. Institutional Segmentation

4.3.2. State-Level and Single-Institution Indices

4.4. Differentiating Labor Categories

4.5. Differentiating Outputs

4.6. Variations in Output Quality

Technical Appendix: The Törnqvist Productivity Index

5       RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CREATING AND EXTENDING THE MEASUREMENT FRAMEWORK

5.1. The Basic Productivity Measure

5.1.1. Instructional Outputs and Benefits

5.1.2. Instructional Inputs and Costs

5.2. Adjusting for Research Production

5.2.1. Project-Driven Departmental Research

5.2.2. Discretionary Departmental Research

5.3. Dealing with Heterogeneity and Quality Issues

5.3.1. Variation of Inputs

5.3.2. Quality Variation and Change of Outputs



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