result in lower level of cracking and ductile behavior, and may lead to a smaller probability of pathogen escape. It has also been stipulated that the NBAF Design Partnership would conform to the most current codes of practice in designing and constructing the facility.

The uSSRA anticipates that hardening the facility for tornadoes also improves the containment system’s capacity to resist earthquakes and reduces the probable loss of containment caused by an earthquake. A performance-based multi-hazard analysis would allow complementary structural features to share load effects of different hazards. An integrated approach should have been used to appropriately account for hardened structural designs in assessing risk associated with multiple hazards (such as tornadoes and earthquakes).

A concern that arises with regard to the seismic analysis is the omission of the effect of vibrations on non-structural elements, including sensitive equipment necessary for filtering, ventilation, and control. To a large extent, this is a design issue and such lab appurtenances should be well secured and detuned from the main structure.

Assessment of Methods and Assumptions

The seismic risk analysis in the uSSRA fails to address fundamental issues in the selection of appropriate design spectral acceleration and the attendant performance of the containment system under design earthquake conditions. Therefore, the committee questions the estimated values of cumulative risk across events associated with seismic catastrophic events, and finds that the uSSRA overestimates the risk due to wind and seismic hazards.


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