could reduce the loading time and any safety issues associated with manual handling of the overpacked munitions.

Both the DAVINCH and the CH2M HILL TDC system have suitable air pollution control systems and are already designed to withstand detonations of energetics. Although both technologies use donor explosives to access the munition bodies and destroy the agent fill, it may be possible to use only enough donor charges to access the munition cavities (as is the case with the EDS) and to then use an external source of hot gas to destroy the agent rather than using the donor charge to do this. This could alleviate safety concerns associated with the handling of energetics and would reduce stresses on the containment vessels associated with the detonations. An approach of this nature was once used to eliminate residual agent from the TDC (NRC, 2006).

Processing of Nonenergetic RCWM

Some of the RCWM at large burial sites will not contain energetics such as bursters and fuzes but may still contain detectable quantities of agent. This materiel includes previously opened and drained munition bodies, scrap metal, and former production plant equipment, as is expected to be found at RSA, for example. Rather than destroying residual agent using donor charges in explosive containment vessels such as the TDC or the DAVINCH, other options exist. These include, but are not limited to, the following:

•  Processing through high-temperature furnaces similar to the Blue Grass metal parts treater or the Pueblo metal treatment unit or the metal parts furnaces used at the now-closed U.S. chemical munition incineration facilities. In all cases, the systems would need to be gas tight and have appropriate air pollution control trains.

•  Processing through a commercial transportable hazardous waste incinerator with a rotary kiln. These systems are gas-tight and are equipped with suitable air pollution control systems.

•  Processing through a car bottom furnace. Such furnaces feature cars (carts) on which the munitions would be loaded that can be rolled on rails into and out of the furnace. A car bottom furnace used for the munition body application would need to be of gas-tight construction and have an air pollution control train for discharge of the off-gases.

•  Treating with decontamination solution and then analyzing the headspace. This is repeated until the headspace concentration is below the VSL. The decontaminated waste can then be shipped off-site for recycling.14

•  Using the Dynasafe SDC 1200 as noted above. The SDC 1200 relies on heat to destroy agent in munitions still containing an agent fill, whether explosively configured or not. It can also be used to destroy residual quantities of agent in previously opened and treated munitions and to treat contaminated scrap metal, assuming that the metal can fit into the SDC loading chambers.

Finding 6-10. A program to investigate technologies such as the SDC that can process burned and opened munition bodies that might still contain residual agent and energetics is justified.

Recommendation 6-8. NSCMP should evaluate the Dynasafe static detonation chamber for its ability to destroy recovered chemical warfare materiel, including burned and previously opened munition bodies that still contain detectable traces of agent and agent-contaminated scrap metal. This evaluation should include possible modifications to the SDC feed system, changes in the residence time in the SDC chamber, and changes to its off-gas treatment system.

Recommendation 6-9. If a Dynasafe static detonation chamber is not available for destroying agent in recovered open munition bodies, or is needed full time for the destruction of intact munitions, the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel should evaluate available alternatives for decontaminating non-energetic recovered chemical warfare materiel.

Finding 6-11. Many items that are expected to be found at Redstone Arsenal are anticipated to contain agent or to be agent-contaminated. At the same time, they will be too large to be fed to available or commonly used decontamination technologies.

Recommendation 6-10. The Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project should begin preparations for treatment of unusually large agent-contaminated or agent-filled items at Redstone Arsenal.

Soil and sludge contaminated with agent, degradation products from agent and energetics and, as mentioned in Chapters 4 and 5, industrial chemicals, including pesticides and solvents, will be found at CWM remediation sites. In the remediation projects at Camp Sibert and Spring Valley, contaminated soil was sent to commercial TSDFs for disposal. The Camp Siebert project manager briefed the committee on one waste analysis issue, difficulties in obtaining toxicity characteristic leaching procedure analyses on soil contaminated with agent; these difficulties caused delays. TSDFs require such analyses before accepting the soil for land disposal. The Edgewood Chemical Biological Center laboratories do not perform these analyses, and commercial

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14Raymond Cormier, Director, Mission Support, Deseret Chemical Depot, personal communication to Nancy Schulte, NRC study director, April 2, 2012.



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