REMEDIATION OF BURIED CHEMICAL WARFARE MATERIEL

Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                  OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
REMEDIATION OF BURIED CHEMICAL WARFARE MATERIEL Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

OCR for page R1
T HE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 5 00 Fifth Street, NW • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-11-C-0213 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25790-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25790-5 Limited copies of this report are available from Additional copies are available from Board on Army Science and Technology The National Academies Press National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, NW 500 Fifth Street, NW, Room 940 Keck 360 Washington, DC 20001 Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3118 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 Internet, http://www.nap.edu Front cover—Upper: Worker in personnel protective equipment lifting a single-round container (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers photo). Left: Degraded military munitions found at Spring Valley, District of Columbia (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers photo). Lower background: German Traktor rocket bases filled with hydrogen mustard, Huntsville (now Redstone) Arsenal, Alabama (U.S. Army photo from 1948). Back cover—Ton containers used for storage of lewisite, a blister agent and lung irritant, Huntsville (now Redstone) Arsenal, Alabama (U.S. Army photo from 1947). Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF THE CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS FOR REMEDIATION OF RECOVERED CHEMICAL WARFARE MATERIEL FROM BURIAL SITES RICHARD J. AYEN, Chair, Waste Management, Inc. (retired), Jamestown, Rhode Island DOUGLAS M. MEDVILLE, Vice Chair, MITRE (retired), Highlands Ranch, Colorado DWIGHT A. BERANEK, Michael Baker Jr., Inc. (retired), Bradenton, Florida EDWARD L. CUSSLER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering (retired), Los Gatos, California CLAIR F. GILL, Smithsonian Institution (retired), McLean, Virginia DEREK GUEST, Derek Guest Environmental and Sustainability Solutions, Pittsford, New York TODD A. KIMMELL, Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. office JOANN SLAMA LIGHTY, University of Utah, Salt Lake City JAMES P. PASTORICK, UXO Pro, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia JEAN D. REED, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM R. RHYNE, ABS Consulting, Inc. (retired), Kingston, Tennessee TIFFANY N. THOMAS, Tetra Tech, Inc., Paradise Valley, Arizona WILLIAM J. WALSH, Pepper Hamilton LLP, Washington, D.C. LAWRENCE J. WASHINGTON, Dow Chemical Company (retired), Paradise Valley, Arizona Staff NANCY T. SCHULTE, Study Director HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Senior Program Officer ANN LARROW, Research Assistant JOE PALMER, Senior Program/Project Assistant v

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Chair, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, Connecticut DAVID M. MADDOX, Vice Chair, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia DUANE ADAMS, Independent Consultant, Carnegie Mellon University (retired), Arlington, Virginia ILESANMI ADESIDA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MARY E. BOYCE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge EDWARD C. BRADY, Strategic Perspectives, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, Florida W. PETER CHERRY, Independent Consultant, Ann Arbor, Michigan EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina JULIA D. ERDLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College LESTER A. FOSTER, Electronic Warfare Associates, Herndon, Virginia JAMES A. FREEBERSYSER, BBN Technology, St. Louis Park, Minnesota RONALD P. FUCHS, Independent Consultant, Seattle, Washington W. HARVEY GRAY, Independent Consultant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee JOHN J. HAMMOND, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Fairfax, Virginia RANDALL W. HILL, JR., University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies, Playa Vista JOHN W. HUTCHINSON, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts MARY JANE IRWIN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park ROBIN L. KEESEE, Independent Consultant, Fairfax, Virginia ELLIOT D. KIEFF, Channing Laboratory, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts WILLIAM L. MELVIN, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Smyrna ROBIN MURPHY, Texas A&M University, College Station SCOTT PARAZYNSKI, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas RICHARD R. PAUL, Independent Consultant, Bellevue, Washington JEAN D. REED, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia LEON E. SALOMON, Independent Consultant, Gulfport, Florida JONATHAN M. SMITH, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia MARK J.T. SMITH, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana MICHAEL A. STROSCIO, University of Illinois, Chicago DAVID A. TIRRELL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena JOSEPH YAKOVAC, President, JVM LLC, Hampton, Virginia Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director CHRIS JONES, Financial Manager DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator vi

OCR for page R1
Preface The Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations The committee’s second focus was to investigate the for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel roles and responsibilities of the numerous organizations and from Burial Sites was appointed by the National Research offices within the Department of Defense and the Depart- Council in response to a request by Conrad F. Whyne, Direc- ment of the Army that are involved with buried chemical tor of the Chemical Materials Agency (CMA). The study materiel issues. In carrying out its assigned role, the NSCMP dealt primarily with the activities of the Non-Stockpile coordinated with these agencies and offices to set priorities, Chemical Materiel Project (NSCMP), which falls organi- obtain funding, and carry out assessment and destruction zationally under the CMA and is headed by Laurence G. activities. It also recommended changes to the relationships Gottschalk, Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical between some of these organizations and offices. Materiel. Mr. Whyne, Mr. Gottschalk, and their staffs heavily The committee held six meetings. The first was at the supported the activities of the committee. Chemical Demilitarization Training Facility at the Aberdeen This report is concerned with the investigation and, if Proving Ground in Edgewood, Maryland. The second meet- required, the remediation of sites that contain buried chemi- ing, held at the Keck Center in Washington, D.C., featured a cal materiel. About 250 such sites, located in 40 states and visit to the nearby Spring Valley chemical weapon remedia- territories of the United States, are thought to exist. Remedia- tion site. The third, fourth, and sixth meetings were also held tion efforts are currently under way in the Spring Valley area at the Keck Center, and the fifth was held at the Beckman of Washington, D.C., and at the Camp Sibert site in Alabama. Center in Irvine, California. A total of 38 presentations were A substantially larger effort is anticipated at the Redstone received from the following entities: Arsenal in Alabama. • The NSCMP plays a major role in remediation efforts. It Twenty agencies and offices within the Department has project management responsibilities for the assessment of Defense; • and disposal of all recovered chemical warfare materiel Regulatory officials from the District of Columbia, (RCWM) and for this purpose identifies assessment and the states of Alabama and Utah, and U.S. Environ- disposal costs, disperses funds for assessment and disposal, mental Protection Agency regions 4 and 8; • prepares project schedules and other required documents, The Spring Valley Community Restoration Advisory and obtains all approvals needed for the destruction of Board; • the RCWM. The NSCMP owns several explosive destruc- Vendors for the commercially available explosive tion systems (EDSs), used for destruction of RCWM, and destruction technologies; and • arranges for use of commercial explosive destruction tech- A member of the staff of the Senate Armed Services nologies for RCWM when needed. Committee. One focus of the committee was investigating the tech- nologies available to the NSCMP for investigating a burial The presentations are listed in Appendix B. site that is thought to contain buried chemical weapons, This report was prepared under the auspices of the Board assessing any chemical materiel recovered, and destroying on Army Science and Technology (BAST) of the National the RCWM. Deficiencies in the available technologies and Research Council. The committee offers its thanks to Bruce research and development targeted at those deficiencies are A. Braun, the Director of BAST, and to Nancy T. Schulte, identified. the Study Director, for their very effective support in the vii

OCR for page R1
viii PREFACE conduct of this study. It also offers its thanks to the BAST staff members who capably assisted in information-gathering activities, meeting and trip arrangements, and the production of this report; they include Ann Larrow, Research Assistant, Joe Palmer, Senior Program/Project Assistant, and Harrison T. Pannella, Senior Program Officer. Richard J. Ayen, Chair Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals John R. Howell, NAE, University of Texas at Austin, chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, Michael F. McGrath, ANSER (Analytic Services Inc.), in accordance with procedures approved by the National Leonard M. Siegel, Center for Public Environmental Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The Oversight, and purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and Michael V. Tumulty, P.E., STV Incorporated. critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the Although the reviewers listed above have provided many report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, constructive comments and suggestions, they were not and responsiveness to the study charge. The review com- asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect did they see the final draft of the report before its release. the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the The review of this report was overseen by Elisabeth M. following individuals for their review of this report: Drake, NAE. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent Fred S. Celec, Institute for Defense Analyses, examination of this report was carried out in accordance with Martin Gray, State of Utah Department of Environmental institutional procedures and that all review comments were Quality, carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of Henry J. Hatch, NAE, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and (retired), the institution. ix

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 11 The Nature of the Recovered CWM Problem, 12 Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Material in the United States, 13 Study Context, 15 Statement of Task, 16 Addressing the Statement of Task, 16 2 CURRENT POLICY, FUNDING, ORGANIZATION, AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 18 Introduction, 18 Policy Development, 18 Historical and Organizational Overview (First World War-2007), 18 Chronology and Context of Directives and Instructions, 20 Funding, 21 Chemical Agent and Munitions Destruction, Defense (CAMD,D), 22 Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP), 22 Operations and Management (O&M), 23 Organization, 23 Department of Defense, 24 Office of the Secretary of the Army, 26 Office of the Secretary of the Navy, 34 Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, 36 Processes, 36 Summary, 37 3 TREATY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS 39 Treaty and Regulatory Requirements That Determine Scope and Cost of Cleanup, 39 Treaty Obligations, 39 CERCLA, 39 RCRA Corrective Action, 41 Historic Examples of Cleanup of Buried CWM, 42 Requirements, 42 The Need for Flexibility in CWM Remediation, 43 Know Before You Go, 44 Clean Islands in the Middle of Contaminated Operational Ranges, 45 Corrective Action Management Units, 45 xi

OCR for page R1
xii CONTENTS The Problem Posed by RCRA Storage Requirements, 46 Regulatory Approval and Permitting of the EDS and EDTs, 47 Recycling of Treated Munition Bodies, Fragments, and Other Metals, 47 Extending the Pine Bluff Model, 47 The Importance of Public Involvement, 48 4 TECHNOLOGIES FOR CLEANUP OF CWM SITES 49 Technology Work Flow, 49 Geophysical Detection, 50 Personal Protective Equipment, 50 Air Monitoring During Excavation, Interim Storage, and Destruction, 50 Monitoring Equipment, 51 Types of Monitoring, 52 Excavation Equipment and Techniques, 52 Conventional Excavation Equipment, 52 Robotic Excavation Equipment, 53 Packaging, Transportation, Storage (On-Site and Intrastate), 53 CWM Packaging and Transportation, 53 CWM Storage, 54 Single Chemical Agent Identification Set Access and Neutralization System, 55 Spectroscopic and X-Ray Assessment, 55 Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography, 55 Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy, 56 Raman Spectroscopy, 56 Mobile Munitions Assessment System, 56 Destruction Technologies, 57 Explosive Destruction System, 57 Transportable Detonation Chamber, 60 Dynasafe Static Detonation Chamber, 61 Detonation of Ammunition in a Vacuum Integrated Chamber, 63 Secondary Waste Storage and Disposal, 64 5 REDSTONE ARSENAL: A CASE STUDY 66 Introduction, 66 The Challenges at Redstone Arsenal, 66 Chemical Warfare Materiel Inventory, 66 Processing of Unusual Items at Redstone Arsenal, 68 Technical and Operational Issues, 69 Match of Technology Needs with NSCMP Capabilities, 70 Assessment of Intact Munitions, 70 Destruction of RCWM-Containing Energetics, 70 Processing of Nonenergetic RCWM, 70 Regulatory Issues, 71 CERCLA Actions at Redstone Arsenal, 72 RCRA Action at Redstone Arsenal, 72 Cleanup Decision, 72 Maximizing Regulatory Flexibility, 73 Corrective Action Management Units, Temporary Units, and Area of Contamination Concept, 73 Community Concerns, 73 6 THE PATH FORWARD: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TARGETED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 75 Technologies With No Targeted R&D Recommendations, 76 Technologies With Targeted R&D Needs, 76 Robotic Excavation Equipment, 76

OCR for page R1
xiii CONTENTS CWM Packaging and Transportation, 76 Assessment of Recovered Munitions, 77 Destruction of Contaminated RCWM, 78 Destruction of RCWM That Contains Energetics, 78 Processing of Nonenergetic RCWM, 80 7 THE PATH FORWARD: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY, FUNDING, AND ORGANIZATION 82 Introduction, 82 Chronology, 2007 Through the Present, 82 RCWM Program Implementation Plan of 2007, 82 The Army’s RCWM Implementation Plan of 2010, 85 Army Role and Responsibilities, 85 Funding, 86 Background, 86 RCWM Program Funding Requirements, 89 Committee Findings and Recommendations on the Organization of RCWM Activities, 90 Organizational Alternatives, 92 Recommended Path Forward, 94 REFERENCES 98 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 101 B Committee Meetings and Data-Gathering Activities 105 C Final Implementation Plan for the Recovery and Destruction of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel, March 1, 2010 109 D Review of Regulatory Programs 112 E Management Practices for U.S. Army Planned RCWM Recovery and Emergency Response 119

OCR for page R1
Tables and Figures TABLES 1-1 Inventory of Army RCWM Sites, 15 3-1 Examples of CWM Cleanups, 43 4-1 Multiple Round Containers, 54 4-2 Comparison of Destruction Technologies, 58 5-1 Partial List of Chemical Items Produced at RSA Ordnance Plant During the Second World War, 68 D-1 Number of Munitions Response Sites FIGURES S-1 Current organization for policy, oversight, and funding for RCWM, 6 S-2 RCWM Army execution structure, 7 S-3 RCWM program future funding, 8 S-4 Army RCWM organization and authority recommended by committee, 9 1-1 NSCMP mission area 4 past and projected schedule, 13 1-2 Past and future mission areas 1-4 activities; locations and munitions destroyed, 14 2-1 Current organization for policy, oversight, and funding for RCWM, 19 2-2 Current funding, CAMD,D, 22 2-3 Current funding, DERP, 22 2-4 Current funding, O&M, 23 2-5 Current organization for execution for RCWM, 24 2-6 Organizational chart for USD(AT&L), 25 2-7 Army environmental organizational structure, 27 2-8 Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management, 28 2-9 Map of U.S. Army Installation Management Command garrisons, 29 2-10 U.S. Army Environmental Command, 30 2-11 NSCMP organizational chart, 32 2-12 Typical chemical warfare materiel project, 33 2-13 USACE Military Munitions Support Services, 34 2-14 NAVFAC overview, 35 2-15 Air Force Center for Engineering and Environment, 36 xiv

OCR for page R1
xv TABLES AND FIGURES 3-1 Comparable CERCLA and RCRA remedial action processes, 42 4-1 Interim holding facility, 55 4-2 A typical DRCT scan, 55 4-3 Mobile munitions assessment system, 57 4-4 The EDS-2 vessel on its trailer, 59 4-5 Process flow in the large mobile transportable detonation chamber TC-60, 61 4-6 Process flow diagram for front components of the Dynasafe SDC 1200 installation for Anniston Army Depot, 62 4-7 DAVINCH three-stage destruction mechanism, 64 5-1 Map of Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, 67 5-2 German Traktor rocket pit at Huntsville (now Redstone) Arsenal, Alabama (photo from 1948), 69 7-1 Current organization for policy, oversight, and funding for RCWM, 88 7-2 RCWM Army execution structure, 91 7-3 RCWM program future funding, 95 7-4 Army RCWM organization and authority recommended by committee, 96 E-1 Management practices for U.S. Army planned RCWM recovery at burial locations, 120 E-2 Management practices for U.S. Army RCWM emergency response, executed by DASA-ECW, CMA, and PMNSCM, 121

OCR for page R1
Acronyms and Abbreviations ACAT I Acquisition Category I CAM Chemical Agent Monitor ACSIM Assistant Chief of Staff, Installation CAMD,D Chemical Agent and Munitions Management (U.S. Army) Disposal, Defense ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons CAMU corrective action management unit Alternatives CARA Chemical Biological Radiological ADEM Alabama Department of Environmental Nuclear (Enhanced) Analysis and Management Remediation Activity AEC U.S. Army Environmental Command CBARR Chemical Biological Applications and AEL airborne exposure limit Risk Reduction AFCEE Air Force Center for Engineering and CBRNE chemical, biological, radiological, Environment nuclear and high yield explosives AMC U.S. Army Materiel Command CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental ANCDF Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Response, Compensation and Facility (Alabama) Liability Act ARAR applicable, relevant, and appropriate CG phosgene requirement CMA Chemical Materials Agency ASA(ALT) Assistant Secretary of the Army CNB CN tear gas mixed with carbon for Acquisition, Logistics and tetrachloride and benzene Technology CNO Chief of Naval Operations ASA(IE&E) Assistant Secretary of the Army CNS CN tear gas mixed with chloropicrin (Installations, Energy and and chloroform Environment CONUS continental United States ASA(ILE) Assistant Secretary of the Army CSA Chief of Staff of the Army for Installation, Logistics and CSDP chemical stockpile disposal program Environment CSE Chemical Stockpile Elimination ASA(RDA) Assistant Secretary of the Army (project) for Research, Development and CSEPP Chemical Stockpile Emergency Acquisition Preparedness Project ASD(NCB) Assistant Secretary of Defense CW chemical weapons (Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological CWC Chemical Weapons Convention Defense Programs) CWM chemical warfare materiel BES budget execution submission DA diphenylchloroarsine (Clark I) BRAC base realignment and closure DAAMS Depot Area Air Monitoring System DAB Defense Acquisition Board CAIRA chemical accident or incident response DASA(ECW) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the and assistance Army for Elimination of Chemical CAIS chemical agent identification set(s) Weapons xvi

OCR for page R1
xvii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS DASA(ESOH) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Environment, Safety and IHF interim holding facility Occupational Health) IMCOM Installation Management Command DAVINCH detonation of ammunition in a vacuum (U.S. Army) integrated chamber INST CDR installation commander DC diphenylcyanoarsine (Clark II) IO integrating office DDESB Department of Defense Explosives IPT integrated product team Safety Board IRP Installation Restoration Program DERP Defense Environmental Restoration ITRC Interstate Technology Regulatory Program Council DM adamsite DMM discarded military munitions L lewisite or liter DOD Department of Defense LDR land disposal restrictions DOT Department of Transportation LITANS large item transportable access and DRCT digital radiography and computed neutralization system tomography DUSD(I&E) Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for MARB Materiel Assessment Review Installations and Environment Board MC munitions constituents EA executive agent MDAP major defense acquisition program(s) ECBC Edgewood Chemical Biological Center MEA monoethanolamine EDS Explosive Destruction System MEC munitions and explosives of concern EDS-1 EDS Phase 1 MEL mobile expeditionary laboratory EDS-2 EDS Phase 2 (CARA) EDS-3 EDS Phase 3 MIL-SPEC military specification EDT explosive destruction technology MINICAMS Miniature Chemical Agent Monitoring EOD explosive ordnance disposal System(s) EPA Environmental Protection Agency MMAS mobile munitions assessment system EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community MMRP Military Munitions Response Program Right-to-Know Act MR munitions rule ER,A Environmental Response, Army MRC multiple round container MRP munitions response program FFA federal facility agreement MRS munitions response site FORSCOM Forces Command (U.S. Army) MRSPP Munitions Response Site Prioritization FSS fragment suppression system Protocol FTO flameless thermal oxidizer MSU munitions storage unit FUDS formerly used defense site(s) NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command GA tabun (a nerve agent) NCP National Oil and Hazardous Substances GB sarin (a nerve agent) Pollution Contingency Plan GD soman (a nerve agent) NDAA National Defense Authorization Act NEW net explosive weight H sulfur mustard NPL National Priorities List HD sulfur mustard (distilled) NRC National Research Council HEPA high-efficiency particulate air (filter) NSCM non-stockpile chemical materiel HN nitrogen mustard NSCMP Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel HN-3 nitrogen mustard Project HNC Huntsville Engineering Center NSCWM non-stockpile chemical warfare HS sulfur mustard materiel HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments OB/OD open burn/open detonation HT sulfur mustard, T-mustard combination, OCONUS outside the continental United States also British mustard OIPT overarching integrated product team

OCR for page R1
xviii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS O&M operations and maintenance TNT trinitrotoluene OMA Operations and Maintenance, Army TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal OP-FTIR Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Facility (Utah) Spectrometry air monitoring TPP Technical Project Planning OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense TRAM throughput, reliability, availability, and maintainability PIG package in-transit gas (container) TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility PINS portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy TU temporary unit PMCD program manager for chemical demilitarization UMSC universal munitions storage container PMNSCM Project Manager for Non-Stockpile USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Chemical Materiel USACMDA U.S. Army Chemical Materiel POM Program Objective Memorandum Destruction Agency PPBES planning, programming, budgeting and USAEC U.S. Army Environmental Command execution USAESCH U.S. Army Engineering Support PPE personal protective equipment Center, Huntsville USATCES U.S. Army Technical Center for RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Explosives Safety Act USD(A&T) Under Secretary of Defense for RCWM recovered chemical warfare materiel Acquisition and Technology RDECOM Research, Development, and (renamed USD(AT&L)) Engineering Command USD(AT&L) Under Secretary of Defense for RDT&E research, development, test, and Acquisition, Technology and evaluation Logistics [formerly USD(A&T)] RFI RCRA Facility Investigation USD(Comptroller) Under Secretary of Defense RI/FS remedial investigation/feasibility study Comptroller ROD record of decision USD(I&E) Under Secretary of Defense for RRS remediation response section (CARA) Installations and Environment RSA Redstone Arsenal UTS universal treatment standards UXO unexploded ordnance SCANS Single Chemical agent identification set Access and Neutralization System VSL vapor screening level SDC static detonation chamber SES Senior Executive Service WP white phosphorus SPP site prioritization protocol SPT CMD Support Command 3X level of agent decontamination SRC single round container (suitable for transport for further STEL short-term exposure limit processing) (obsolete) SWMU solid waste management unit 5X level of agent decontamination (suitable for release for unrestricted TDC transportable detonation chamber use) (obsolete)