The Cyberspace Domain
Cyberspace, a relatively new and rapidly evolving operational domain for the Department of Defense (DoD) and the military services, is defined as “a global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers.”a ISR can be substantially augmented or hindered in the cyberspace domain. ISR sensors can be augmented by the ability of cyber information to provide geolocation information and movement information on adversarial and friendly systems. This capability can allow sparse assets to be deployed elsewhere or to obtain information more effectively, allowing rapid, minimal observations.
Cyberspace is human-made, which makes the cyber domain different from the natural domains of air and space, although cyber capabilities can exist in all natural domains. Components, subsystems, and systems exist in the cyber domain: these include networks, globally integrated and isolated; physical infrastructure; electronic systems; portions of electromagnetic systems;b and industrial control systems known as “SCADA” (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems. The latter are computer systems that monitor and control industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes. Beyond these definitions, the committee offers the view that any asset with computational capability— including avionics and flight control systems, tactical communications and data links, and command-and-control systems onboard and off-board—should be considered to be in the cyber domain.
aDoD. 2010. “Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Joint Publication 1-02). 8 November. As amended through 15 October 2011.” Available at http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp1_02.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2012.
The Deputy Chief of Staff of the Air Force for ISR (AF/A2) and others desire that the Air Force conduct its ISR Capability Planning and Analysis (CP&A) process at an enterprise level rather than on a system-by-system basis.3 To produce optimum capability, the Air Force wishes to treat ISR data and information as a system-of-systems enterprise. Such an enterprise needs to be composed of end-toend solutions that include all the elements of PCPAD—planning and direction,
3On a system-by-system basis, individual ISR systems are considered in isolation from other ISR systems. The result may be that an ISR system other than the one in question may sufficiently provide the sought-after capability requirement, thus obviating a new acquisition need. Conversely, the system in question may not be needed at all in view of the contribution of another system not considered. Further, the combination of otherwise independently acting systems may together solve the capability requirement. Conversely, in an ISR enterprise, all relevant ISR systems are considered regardless of ownership as long as their capability contributes to understanding an adversary or potential adversary.