Bacteria: Microscopic, single-celled organisms that have some biochemical and structural features different from those of animal and plant cells.

Bush meat: Wildlife species that are hunted in the “bush” or forests.

Campylobacter: A genus of slender spirally curved rod bacteria of the family Spirillaceae that are Gram-negative, microaerophilic, and motile with a characteristic motion resembling a corkscrew, that do not form spores, and that include forms formerly included in the genera Spirillum or Vibrio of which some are pathogenic for domestic animals or humans.

Clostridium: A genus of saprophytic rod-shaped or spindle-shaped usually Gram-positive bacteria of the family Bacillaceae that are anaerobic or require very little free oxygen and are nearly cosmopolitan in soil, water, sewage, and animal and human intestines, that are very active biochemically comprising numerous fermenters of carbohydrates with vigorous production of acid and gas, many nitrogen fixers, and others that rapidly putrefy proteins, and that include important pathogens.

Codex Alimentarius: A document titled “Recommended International Codes of Hygienic Practice for Fresh Meat, for Ante-Mortem and Post-Mortem Inspection of Slaughter Animals and for Processed Meat Products” published by FAO/ WHO in 1976. It serves as an international code of voluntary standards for food additives, pesticide residue, veterinary drugs, and other issues that affect consumer food safety. The CODEX also contains rules and guidelines to promote fair practices in food trade, and recommends an international code of hygiene and technological practices. Published by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Also called CODEX.

Contaminant: An impurity, any substance or material that enters a system—the environment, human body, food, etc.—where it is not normally found.

Cryptosporidium: A genus of protozoans of the order Coccidia that are parasitic in the gut of many vertebrates including humans and that sometimes cause diarrhea, especially in individuals who are immunocompromised.

Cyclospora: A genus of coccidian protozoans that produce an oocyst containing two sporocysts with each sporocyst containing two sporozoites and that include one (C. cayetanensis) causing diarrhea in humans.

Disease burden: The impact of a health problem in a population measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.

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