Resistance: see Antibiotic resistance.

RNA (ribonucleic acid): Any of various nucleic acids that contain ribose and uracil as structural components and are associated with the control of cellular chemical activities.

Salmonella: A group of bacteria that cause typhoid fever, food poisoning, and enteric fever from contaminated food products.

Salmonellosis: An infection with bacteria called Salmonella. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most persons recover without treatment.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): A viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003.

Shiga toxin—producing Escherichia coli (STEC): A type of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) bacteria that can cause illness ranging from mild intestinal disease to severe kidney complications. Other types of enterohemorrhagic E. coli include the relatively important serotype E. coli O157:H7, and more than 100 other non-O157 strains.

Shigella: A genus of nonmotile aerobic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae that form acid but no gas on many carbohydrates and that cause dysenteries in animals and especially humans.

Simian T-lymphotropic virus: A strain of primate T-lymphotropic virus 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia.

Surveillance: The continuing scrutiny of all aspects of occurrence and spread of a disease that is pertinent to effective control.

Toxoplasma: A genus of sporozoans that are typically serious pathogens of vertebrates.

Vector: A carrier—especially an arthropod—that transfers an infective agent from one host (which can include itself) to another.

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