Notes

MAIN TEXT

1.   Section based on National Research Council (NRC)/Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem: Retaining Leadership in an Increasingly Global Environment, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., with additional data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) program.

2.   NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem.

3.   As defined by the Department of Commerce, this industry cluster consists of “computer and electronic products within durable-goods manufacturing; publishing industries (includes software) and information and data processing services within information; and computer systems design and related services within professional, scientific, and technical services.” See 4.bea.gov/newsreleases/industry/gdpindustry/2011/txt/gdpind10_rev.

4.   Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2011, “2010 Recovery Widespread Across Industries,” April 26, http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/industry/gdpindustry/2011/pdf/gdpind10_adv_fax.pdf. See also “Interactive Access to Industry Economic Accounts Data,” http://www.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=5&step=1.

5.   Matthieu Pélissié du Rausas, James Manyika, Eric Hazan, Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and Rémi Said, 2011, “Internet Matters: The Net’s Sweeping Impact on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity,” McKinsey Global Institute, May, http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/MGI/Research/Technology_and_Innovation/Internet_matters. The authors define “Internet-related activities” as the “totality of Internet activities (e.g., e-commerce) and … a portion of the information and communication technologies sector delineated by such activities, technologies, and services linked to the Web.”

6.   This number may overestimate the investment in computing research. A 2010 PCAST report observes that “[a] large portion of the ‘High End Computing Infrastructure and Applications’ … is attributable to computational infrastructure used to conduct R&D in other fields.” See President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2010, Report to the President and Congress: Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and Information Technology, Executive Office of the President, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-nitrd-report-2010.pdf.

7.   NITRD, 2009, “FY 2010 Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Supplement to the President’s Budget,” May, http://www.nitrd.gov/pubs/2010supplement/FY10Supp-FINALFormat-Web.pdf.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 18
Notes MAIN TEXT 1. Section based on National Research Council (NRC)/Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem: Retaining Leadership in an Increasingly Global Environment, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., with additional data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) program. 2. NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem. 3. As defined by the Department of Commerce, this industry cluster consists of “computer and electronic prod- ucts within durable-goods manufacturing; publishing industries (includes software) and information and data processing services within information; and computer systems design and related services within professional, scientific, and technical services.” See http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/industry/gdpindustry/2011/txt/ gdpind10_rev. 4. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2011, “2010 Recovery Widespread Across Industries,” April 26, http://www.bea. gov/newsreleases/industry/gdpindustry/2011/pdf/gdpind10_adv_fax.pdf. See also “Interactive Access to Industry Economic Accounts Data,” http://www.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=5&step=1. 5. Matthieu Pélissié du Rausas, James Manyika, Eric Hazan, Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and Rémi Said, 2011, “Internet Matters: The Net’s Sweeping Impact on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity,” McKinsey Global Institute, May, http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/MGI/Research/Technology_and_Innovation/Internet_matters. The authors define “Internet-related activities” as the “totality of Internet activities (e.g., e-commerce) and . . . a por- tion of the information and communication technologies sector delineated by such activities, technologies, and services linked to the Web.” 6. This number may overestimate the investment in computing research. A 2010 PCAST report observes that “[a] large portion of the ‘High End Computing Infrastructure and Applications’ . . . is attributable to computational infrastructure used to conduct R&D in other fields.” See President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Tech- nology, 2010, Report to the President and Congress: Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Devel- opment in Networking and Information Technology, Executive Office of the President, http://www.whitehouse. gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-nitrd-report-2010.pdf. 7. NITRD, 2009, “FY 2010 Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Supplement to the President’s Budget,” May, http://www.nitrd.gov/pubs/2010supplement/FY10Supp-FINALFormat-Web. pdf. 18

OCR for page 18
19 NOTES 8. Section based on NRC/CSTB, 2003, Innovation in Information Technology, The National Academies Press, Wash- ington, D.C., with discussion updated to take into account revisions reflected in Figure 1 of the present report. 9. NRC/CSTB, 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 10. NRC/CSTB, 2003, Innovation in Information Technology. 11. The idea that research in IT not only builds in part on research in physics, mathematics, electrical engineer- ing, psychology, and other fields but also strongly influences them is consistent with what Donald Stokes has characterized in his four-part taxonomy as “Pasteur’s Quadrant” research: use- or application-inspired basic research that pursues fundamental understanding (such as Louis Pasteur’s research on the biological bases of fermentation and disease). See the discussion on pp. 26-29 of NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.; see also Donald E. Stokes, 1997, Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Techno- logical Innovation, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 12. NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem. 13. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 14. NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem. 15. Some of the agencies within the Department of Defense that made major contributions include the Office of Naval Research, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Army Research Office, and the Army’s Satellite Com- munications Agency. 16. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Ini- tiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure. 17. In addition to provision of research funding, complementary activities have been undertaken by other agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which often brings together people from universi- ties and industry on issues relating to standards setting and measurement. 18. Member agencies include the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Defense Advanced Research Proj- ects Agency; Department of Homeland Security; Department of Energy—National Nuclear Security Admin- istration and DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; Environmental Protection Agency; De- partment of Health and Human Services—Office of the National Coordinator, National Archives and Records Administration; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Institutes of Health; National In- stitute of Standards and Technology; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Security Agency; National Science Foundation; and Office of the Secretary of Defense and Department of Defense ser- vice research organizations (Defense Research and Engineering and Deputy Under Secretary of Defense Science & Technology). See http://www.nitrd.gov/Subcommittee/agency-web-sites.aspx. 19. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution. 20. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Ini- tiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure. 21. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution. 22. See, for example, previous CSTB reports (all published by the National Academy/Academies Press, Washing- ton, D.C.), including NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Per- formance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure; 1992, Comput- ing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Embedded, Everywhere: A Research Agenda for Networked Systems of Embedded Computers; and 1997, More Than Screen Deep: Toward Every- Citizen Interfaces to the Nation’s Information Infrastructure. 23. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Ini- tiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure. 24. Timothy Prickett Morgan, 2011, “ARM Holdings Eager for PC and Server Expansion: Record 2010, Looking for Killer 2020,” The Register Online, February 1, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/02/01/arm_holdings_ q4_2010_numbers/. 25. In some cases, the Semiconductor Research Corporation provided the funding. For additional information, see http://web.archive.org/web/20080103002836/and http://www.src.org/member/about/history.asp. 26. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Ini- tiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

OCR for page 18
20 CONTINUING INNOVATION IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 27. See, for example, the following previous CSTB reports: NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Infor- mation Infrastructure. 28. NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better. 29. NRC/CSTB, 2010, Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., p. 37. 30. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Ini- tiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure. 31. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Ini- tiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure. 32. NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution. 33. NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better. 34. The concentration of research in universities is particularly true for computer science research; industry played an important role in telecommunications research before the breakup of AT&T and the original Bell Labs. Im- portant research has also been conducted at Department of Energy and other government laboratories. 35. NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better. 36. See, for example the following previous CSTB reports: NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Infor- mation Infrastructure. 37. NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering. 38. NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better; 1992, Computing the Future. 39. NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better. 40. NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. 41. NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. 42. To the extent that U.S. research produces people who move to U.S. product development, the U.S. economy gains an “appropriable” benefit from funding research. 43. Computing Research Association (CRA), 2010, Taulbee Survey Report, CRA, Washington, D.C., Table 25, http://www.cra.org/resources/taulbee/. 44. NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. 45. In computing, electronics, telecommunications, and biotechnology, evidence of the correlation abounds—in Boston (Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Research Triangle Park (Duke University, the University of North Carolina, and North Carolina State University); New Jersey (Princeton Uni- versity, Rutgers University, and New York City–based Columbia University); Austin (the University of Texas); southern California (the University of California, San Diego, the University of California, Los Angeles, the Cali- fornia Institute of Technology, and the University of Southern California); northern California (the University of California, Berkeley, the University of California, San Francisco, and Stanford University); and Seattle (the University of Washington). 46. See, for example, previous CSTB reports, including NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s In- formation Infrastructure; 1992, Computing the Future; 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Embedded, Everywhere; and 1997, More Than Screen Deep. TABLE 1 Qualcomm—-Equipment and services ($6.98 billion); licensing and royalties ($4.01 billion). Qualcomm 2010 Annual Report, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/QCOM/1510480689x0x451979/c5ba4b26-fe1d-4756- a735-ed1d972402cb/2010-10-K.pdf. Motorola—Net sales, products ($6.1 billion); net sales, services ($2.1 billion). Motorola 2011 Annual Report, http:// files.shareholder.com/downloads/ABEA-2FO3VV/1751114768x0x552627/1344EB61-45BA-4EAD-9EC4- A99116BE997C/MSI_2011_AR.pdf.

OCR for page 18
21 NOTES nVidia—FY2011 total revenue. nVidia Corporation, 2011 Annual Review, Notice of Annual Meeting, Proxy State- ment and nVidia Form 10-K (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission; SEC). Intel—2011 revenue based on general accepted accounting principles (GAAP); non-GAAP revenue $54.2 billion. See http://www.intc.com/financials.cfm. AMD—Computing solutions only (excludes “graphics,” “foundries,” and “other”). AMD 2011 Annual Report, http://ir.amd.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=74093&p=irol-reportsannual. Texas Instruments—2011 revenue from embedded processing segment, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/ TXN/1710273597x0x535657/2de80eb4-2af1-4e4e-bd7f-f36811701b17/TXN_News_2012_1_23_Financial.pdf. Dell—Desktop PCs ($18.97 billion) and mobile and laptop PCs ($14.69 billion) (excludes software, services, and enterprise/server sales). Dell 2011 Form 10-K (SEC). HP—Revenue from Personal Systems Group (excludes software, services, and printers). HP 2011 Annual Report, http://h30261.www3.hp.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=71087&p=irol-reportsAnnual. Apple—Includes desktop and portable device sales ($21.78 billion), iPhone ($47.0 billion), and iPad ($20.3 billion). 2011 Apple, Inc. Form 10-K (SEC). Symantec—Symantec FY2011 net revenue, http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NDQ 2MTY2fENoaWxkSUQ9NDY5NTEwfFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1. Juniper—Total revenue. Juniper Networks FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). Cisco—Total revenue. Cisco Systems 2011 Annual Report, http://www.cisco.com/assets/cdc_content_elements/ docs/annualreports/media/2011-ar.pdf. Akamai—Total revenue. Akamai FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). Twitter—Estimated total revenue. Wall Street Journal, 2011, “Twitter as Tech Bubble Barometer,” http://www.npr. org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/02/10/133648669/twitters-value-up-to-10-billion-wall-street-journal-reports. Facebook—Total 2011 revenue. Form 424B4 (SEC), filed May 18, 2012. eBay—Total revenue. eBay FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). Amazon—Sum of U.S.-based media sales ($8 billion) and electronics and merchandise sales ($17.3 billion); excludes Amazon Web Services and “other,” which encompasses such things as Amazon-branded credit cards. Amazon FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). Google—Revenue except “other.” Google FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC). Yahoo!—Total FY2011 revenue. Yahoo! FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). Google—Non-advertising revenue. Google FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC). VMware—Total revenue. VMware FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC). Amazon—Non-e-commerce revenue from Amazon Web Services. Amazon FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). Oracle—Revenue total for new software licenses ($9.2 billion), hardware systems ($4.4 billion), software license up- dates and product support ($14.8 billion), and hardware systems support ($2.56 billion) and excluding cloud, consulting, and education. Oracle FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC). IBM—2011 revenue from software ($24.94 billion) and systems and technology ($18.99 billion) and excluding global business services, global technology services, and global financing. IBM 2011 Annual Report, http://www.ibm. com/annualreport/2011/. Microsoft—Revenue from server and tools product and service offerings (includes Windows Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Azure, Visual Studio, System Center products, Windows Embedded device platforms, and Enterprise Services) ($17.1 billion); Business Division offerings (includes the Microsoft Office system, compris- ing mainly Office, SharePoint, Exchange, and Lync; and Microsoft Dynamics business solutions) ($22.2 billion). Microsoft FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). Electronic Arts—Electronic Arts FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC). Pixar—Pixar became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Walt Disney Company in 2006. Worldwide gross revenue from Pixar Studio releases was $766 million in 2009, $1.06 billion in 2010, and $554 million in 2011. See http:// www.the-numbers.com/movies/series/Pixar.php. Adobe—Total revenue. Adobe FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). iRobot—Total revenue. iRobot 2010 Annual Report, April 13, 2011, http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item= UGFyZW50SUQ9NDIxNzg2fENoaWxkSUQ9NDM1NTYzfFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1. Nuance—Total revenue. Nuance FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC). Intuitive Surgical—Total revenue. Intuitive Surgical 2010 Annual Report, http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File ?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9ODQxMTJ8Q2hpbGRJRD0tMXxUeXBlPTM=&t=1.

OCR for page 18
22 CONTINUING INNOVATION IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TABLE 2 Column Headed “Today” Wireless and broadband industry subscribers worldwide: International Telecommunication Union, 2011, “The World in 2011: ICT Facts and Figures,” http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/facts/2011/material/ICTFactsFigures2010.pdf. subscribers in the United States: CTIA, “50 Wireless Quick Facts,” http://www.ctia.org/consumer_info/index.cfm/ AID/10323. mobile-broadband subscribers: International Telecommunication Union, 2011, “Measuring the Information Society,” http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2011/Material/MIS_2011_without_annex_5.pdf. fixed broadband subscriptions: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Directorate for Sci- ence, Technology, and Industry, “OECD Broadband Portal,” http://www.oecd.org/document/54/0,3746 ,en_2649_34225_38690102_1_1_1_1,00.html. Microprocessor industry 8.3 billion: Lee Eng Kean, 2010, “MCU to Intel Architecture Conversion,” EE Times, May 31, http://www.eetimes. com/design/microcontroller-mcu/4199788/MCU-to-Intel-architecture-conversion. $40 billion: http://www.isuppli.com/Home-and-Consumer-Electronics/News/Pages/Fourth-Quarter-2010-Micro processor-Shares–Final-Microprocessor-Revenue-Share-Data.aspx. Personal computing industry 1.4 billion: eTForecasts, “Worldwide PC Market,” http://www.etforecasts.com/products/ES_pcww1203.htm. 100 million: “Gartner Survey Shows U.S. Consumers More Likely to Purchase a Smartphone Than Other Consumer Devices in 2011,” http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1550814. Internet and Web industries One third . . . online, and 45%: International Telecommunication Union, 2011, “The World in 2011: ICT Facts and Fig- ures,” http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/facts/2011/material/ICTFactsFigures2010.pdf. 18 billion searches: comScore, 2011, “comScore Releases 2011 U.S. Search Engine Rankings,” press release, November 11, http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2011/11/comScore_Releases_October_2011_ U.S._Search_Engine_Rankings. $48.2 billion and . . . 4.6% of total sales: U.S. Census Bureau, 2011, “Quarterly Retail E-Commerce Sales: 3rd Quarter 2011,” November 17, http://www.fortune3.com/blog/2011/01/ecommerce-sales-2011/. $8 trillion: Matthieu Pélissié du Rausas, James Manyika, Eric Hazan, Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and Rémi Said, 2011, “Internet Matters: The Net’s Sweeping Impact on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity,” McKinsey Global Institute, May, http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/MGI/Research/Technology_and_Innovation/Internet_matters. Cloud computing industry $1 billion . . . by 2013: In Stat, 2011, “Healthcare to Spend $518 Million on Infrastructure as a Service in 2015,” August 1, http://www.instat.com/newmk.asp?ID=3219&SourceID=00000352000000000000. Expand 139% from 2010 to 2011: Business Technology Roundtable, 2011, “Increased Spending on Public Cloud Computing Services,” August 9, http://business-technology-roundtable.blogspot.com/2011/08/increased- spending-on-public-cloud.html.

OCR for page 18
23 NOTES Enterprise systems industry 583 terabytes of sales: Information Week, 2006, “Data, Data Everywhere,” http://www.informationweek.com/ news/175801775?pgno=2; Regis McKenna, 2002, Total Access: Giving Customers What They Want in an Anytime Anywhere World, Harvard Business Press. Entertainment industry Highest-grossing film of 2010: Box Office Mojo, “2010 Worldwide Grosses,” http://boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart /?view2=worldwide&yr=2010&p=.htm. Column Headed “Advances Expected,” in Research Topic Noted Networking embedded everywhere: NRC/CSTB, 2001, Embedded, Everywhere: A Research Agenda for Networked Systems of Embedded Computers, National Academy Press, Washington. D.C. Databases energy-efficient computing: Stavros Harizopoulos, Mehul Shah, Justin Mexa, and Parthasarathy Ranganathan, 2009, “Energy Efficiency: The New Holy Grail of Data Management Systems Research,” 4th Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research (CIDR), January 4-7, Asilomar, California. and other large-scale data management systems: Daniel J. Abadi, 2009, “Data Management in the Cloud: Limitations and Opportunities,” Bulletin of the [IEEE Computer Society] Technical Committee on Data Engineering 32(1):3-12; Sam Madden and Maarten van Steen, 2012, “Internet-Scale Data Management,” IEEE Internet Computing 16(1):10-12. Computer graphics to the simulation code: James Ahrens and Han-Wei Shen, 2010, “Ultrascale Visualization,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 30(3):20-21. Artificial intelligence and robotics robots for more than vacuuming: Hans Moravec, 2009, “Rise of the Robots—The Future of Artificial Intelligence,” Sci- entific American, March 23, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=rise-of-the-robots.