8.   Section based on NRC/CSTB, 2003, Innovation in Information Technology, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., with discussion updated to take into account revisions reflected in Figure 1 of the present report.

9.   NRC/CSTB, 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

10.   NRC/CSTB, 2003, Innovation in Information Technology.

11.   The idea that research in IT not only builds in part on research in physics, mathematics, electrical engineering, psychology, and other fields but also strongly influences them is consistent with what Donald Stokes has characterized in his four-part taxonomy as “Pasteur’s Quadrant” research: use- or application-inspired basic research that pursues fundamental understanding (such as Louis Pasteur’s research on the biological bases of fermentation and disease). See the discussion on pp. 26-29 of NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.; see also Donald E. Stokes, 1997, Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

12.   NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem.

13.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

14.   NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem.

15.   Some of the agencies within the Department of Defense that made major contributions include the Office of Naval Research, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Army Research Office, and the Army’s Satellite Communications Agency.

16.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

17.   In addition to provision of research funding, complementary activities have been undertaken by other agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which often brings together people from universities and industry on issues relating to standards setting and measurement.

18.   Member agencies include the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; Department of Homeland Security; Department of Energy—National Nuclear Security Administration and DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; Environmental Protection Agency; Department of Health and Human Services—Office of the National Coordinator, National Archives and Records Administration; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Institutes of Health; National Institute of Standards and Technology; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Security Agency; National Science Foundation; and Office of the Secretary of Defense and Department of Defense service research organizations (Defense Research and Engineering and Deputy Under Secretary of Defense Science & Technology). See http://www.nitrd.gov/Subcommittee/agency-web-sites.aspx.

19.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution.

20.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

21.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution.

22.   See, for example, previous CSTB reports (all published by the National Academy/Academies Press, Washington, D.C.), including NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure; 1992, Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Embedded, Everywhere: A Research Agenda for Networked Systems of Embedded Computers; and 1997, More Than Screen Deep: Toward Every-Citizen Interfaces to the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

23.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

24.   Timothy Prickett Morgan, 2011, “ARM Holdings Eager for PC and Server Expansion: Record 2010, Looking for Killer 2020,” The Register Online, February 1, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/02/01/arm_holdings_q4_2010_numbers/.

25.   In some cases, the Semiconductor Research Corporation provided the funding. For additional information, see http://web.archive.org/web/20080103002836/ and http://www.src.org/member/about/history.asp.

26.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.



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